[ 216 1 off] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [ons affront, indignity, outrage, in- sult. ANT. Defense, guiltlessness, innocence. Offensive. Disagreeable, obnox- ious, distasteful, impertinent, disgusting, rude, saucy, appro- brious, insulting, insolent, at- tacking, abusive, invading, as- sailant. ANT. Defensive, pleasing, grateful, savory. Offer. Propose, propound, ten- der, sacrifice, immolate, under- take, attempt, try, proffer. ANT. Withhold, irithdraio, retract, retain, alienate, divert. Offhand. Instant, ready, extem- poraneous, unpremeditated, un- studied, impromptu. ANT. Premeditated, elabo- rate, studied, thought-out. Office. Service, duty, custom, po- sition, charge, authority, func- tion, business. ANT. Leisure, vacancy, sine- cure, resignation. Officer. Official, functionary, di- rector, dignitary, manager, ad- ministrator. ANT. Member, servant, pri- vate, employee. Official, a. Administrative, au- thoritative, functional, profes- sional. ANT. Private, unofficial, un- professional. Officiate. Act, serve, perform. ANT. Witness, retire. Officious. Impertinent, meddle- some, interfering, forward, in- trusive, pushing. ANT. Negligent, backward, remiss; retiring, modest. Often. Frequently, repeatedly, commonly, many times, not sel- dom. ANT. Infrequently, seldom, rarely. Old. Aged, ancient, primitive, pristine, antique, antiquated, old-fashioned, obsolete; senile; gray, hoary, olden, immemo- rial, time-honored, decrepit, el- derly, patriarchal, remote, ven- erable, time-worn. ANT. Youthful, childlike, young; recent, modern, fresh,, new-fashioned, current. Omen. Prognostic, augury, pres- age, sign, portent, foreboding. ANT. Fulfilment, event, oc- currence, realization. Ominous. Significant, porten- tous, unpropitious, threaten- ing, inauspicious, foreboding, premonitory, suggestive. ANT. Encouraging, auspi- cious, propitious. Omit, v. Leave out, neglect, for- bear, fail, miss, overlook. ANT. Consider, observe, no- tice, attend, regard. Omnipotent. All-powerful, ir- resistible, Almighty. ANT. Powerless, inefficient, impotent. Omniscient. All-knowing, infal- lible, all-wise. ANT. Short-sighted, fallible, ignorant. One. Single, individual, soli- tary, certain, undivided, com- mon, united, unitary. ANT. Many, several; few. Onerous. Burdensome, oppres- sive, heavy, toilsome, difficult, laborious, responsible. ANT. Light, easy, trivial. Only, ad. Solely, singly, exclu- sively, merely, barely, wholly. ANT. Among, amongst, to- gether, collectively. Only, a. Single, sole, alone, pre- eminent, chief. ANT. Many, together, sev- eral, mixed. Onset, Onslaught. Assault, at- tack, storming, aggression, in- vasion. [ 217 ] <mw] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS topp ANT. Repulse, resistance, protection, shelter, support, de- fense. Onward. Forward, in advance, ahead. ANT. Aback, astern, lack- ward. Opaque. Impervious, not trans- parent, obscure, unintelligible. ANT. Pellucid, translucent, transparent, obvious, clear, in- telligible, perspicuous. *)pen, v. Unclose, disclose, ex- pose, explain, begin, commence, initiate. ANT. Close, shut, cover, con- ceal; conclude, terminate; mis- interpret, mystify. ^>pen, a. Unclosed, uncovered, unprotected, exposed, plain, obvious, evident, public, art- less, candid, free, available, ac- cessible, undisguised, ingenu- ous. ANT. Closed, barred, inac- cessible, unavailable, reserved, shut, secreted. Opening. Aperture, hole, space, breach, gap, fissure; start, in- auguration, commencement, ini- tiation, beginning ; opportunity. ANT. Obstruction, stop-gap, termination, enclosure, close, end, conclusion, inopportunity, unseasonableness. Operation. Agency, action, ex- ercise, production, influence, force, performance, result, pro- cedure, effect, execution. ANT. Failure, uselessness, futility, ineffectiveness, ineffi- ciency, poioerlessness, inaction, cessation, rest. Opinion. Persuasion, idea, sen- timent, view, conviction, judg- ment, notion, impression, esti- mation. ANT. Evidence, argument, inquiry, speculation, investiga- tion, pleading. Opponent. Antagonist, foe, ad- versary, enemy, rival. ANT. Helper, assistant, ac- complice, ally. Opportune. Timely, seasonable, convenient, ready, suitable, au- spicious, meet, appropriate. ANT. Untimely, unseason- able, inopportune, infelicitous. Opportunity. Occasion, conven- ience, occurrence, turn, open- ing. ANT. Lapse, omission, inop- portuneness, contre-temps. Oppose. Combat, withstand, con- tradict, deny, gainsay, oppugn, contravene, check, obstruct. ANT. Aid, abet, support, ad- vance, expedite. Opposite. Facing, contrary, re- pugnant, antagonistic, adverse, counter, contradictory, op- posed. ANT. Agreeing, coincident, harmonious, conformable, suit- ing, fitting, accordant. Opposition. Restraint, defeat, resistance, hostility, obstacle, obstruction, animosity. ANT. Sympathy, harmony, concord, alliance, congeniality. Oppress. Impose, weigh down, burden, grind, persecute, over- whelm, crush, overpower, sub- due. ANT. Encourage, assist, sup- port, befriend. Oppression. Cruelty, tyranny, hardship, injustice, severity. ANT. Kindness, mercy, jus- tice, clemency, leniency. Oppressive. Heavy, oppressing, rigorous, tyrannical, unjust, ex- tortionate, grinding. ANT. Light, easy, compas- sionate, just, humane, gener- ous. Opprobrium. Disgrace, infamy, reproach, contempt, scandal, obloquy, odium. [ 218 ] opt] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [or ANT. Popularity, welcome, acceptableness. Option. Choice, preference, selec- tion, discretion, wish, election. ANT. Compulsion, necessity, obligation. Opulence. Wealth, riches, for- tune, affluence, independence. ANT. Poverty, impecunios- ity, indigence, want. Oracle. Revelation ; prophet, an- gel. ANT. Empiricism, pragma- tism. Oracular. Prophetic, ominous, portentous; authoritative, pos- itive, dogmatical ; wise, grave, sage ; obscure, equivocal, am- biguous. ANT. Cautious, modest, va- cillating, diffident. Oral. Verbal, unwritten, vocal, spoken, traditional. ANT. Documentary, icrit- ten. Oration. Address, speech, dis- course, harangue, lecture, dis- putation, declamation, effusion. ANT. Reasoning, suggestion, insinuation. Oratory. Eloquence, rhetoric, el- ocution, declamation. ANT. Hesitation, stammer- ing, dulness. Orb. Sphere, globe, ball; circle, orbit, circuit; disk; revolution. Orbit. Revolution, path, circuit, sphere. ANT. Deviation, eccentric- ity, perturbation. Ordain. Set, regulate, establish, appoint, decree, constitute, in- stitute, prescribe, dictate. ANT. Revoke, subvert, can- eel, countermand. Ordeal. Test, trial, experiment, probation, proof, scrutiny, as- say, investigation. ANT. Result, event; argu- ment, evidence, plea, discussion. Order. Arrangement, system, procedure, method, rule, regula- tion ; command, mandate, rank, direction, grade, class, clmrac- ter, kind, management, injunc- tion, prohibition, requirement,, instruction. ANT. Alloicance, consent, leave, permission, permit, lib- erty, license. Orderly. Regular, obedient, sys- tematic, quiet, peaceable, meth- odical, well-regulated. ANT. Disorderly, riotous, ir~ regular. Ordinance. Statue, law, edict,, decree, rescript, regulation, in- stitute, rule. ANT. Custom, usage, tradi- tion, fashion. Ordinary. Normal, usual, com- mon, customary, settled, fre- quent, wonted, habitual, indif- ferent, mediocre, plain, com- monplace. ANT. Extraordinary, supe- rior, unusual, uncommon. Organic. Inherent, fundamen- tal, essential, constitutional, radical, vital; organized, syste- matized. ANT. Non-essential, circum- stantial, provisional, contin- gent, inorganic, secondary. Organization. Structure, form, construction ; organism. ANT. Disorganization. Organize. Arrange, constitute, shape, adjust, frame, establish, construct, systematize. ANT. Disorganize, dismem- ber, disband, break up, annul. Origin. Source, rise, commence' ment, spring, fountain, deriva tion, cause, root, foundation. ANT. Termination, conclU' sion, extinction. Original. Primitive, new, pri mary, pristine, genuine, in ventive, peculiar, initiatory, [ 219 ] ori] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [ore primordial, ancient, former, first. ANT. Subsequent, later, de- rivative, modern, terminal. Originate. Begin, cause, com- mence, start, invent, create, spring, rise. ANT. Prosecute, conduct; conclude, finish, end. Ornament. Decoration, embel- lishment, adornment. ANT. Disgrace, brand, dis- figurement, detraction. Ornate. Adorned, beautiful, em- bellished, decorated, elaborate, rich, ornamented. ANT. Bare, bald, nude, plain, naked. Orthodox. Sound, conventional, approved, correct. ANT. Heretical, unorthodox, liberal, radical. Ostensible. Exhibited, avowed, professed, apparent, pretended, declared, manifest, specious, plausible, outward. ANT. Real, actual, genuine, veritable, concealed, hidden. Ostentation. Display, boasting, show, boast, vaunting, flourish, pageant, pomp, parade, page- antry. ANT. Diffidence, modesty, reserve, timidity, shrinking, re- tirement, quietness, unobtru- siveness. Ostracism. Banishment, exclu- sion, expulsion, blackball, ex- communication, separation. ANT. Admittance, enlist- ment, enrolment; welcome, fel- lowship. Outbreak. Outburst, eruption, tumult, commotion, rebellion, insurrection, riot, conflict. ANT. Quiet, order, pacifica- tion, subsidence, quelling. Outcast. Exile, vagabond, rep- robate, castaway, pariah, va- grant. Outcry. Clamor, tumult, vocif- eration, alarm, yell, scream, noise. ANT. Quiet, silence; accla- mation, plaudit. Outer. Outside, outward, exter- nal, exterior. ANT. Inward, inside, inter- nal, interior. Outlaw. Brigand, bandit, rob- ber, highwayman, marauder, freebooter. Outlet. Egress, exit, vent. ANT. Entrance, ingress. Outline. Contour, sketch, delin- eation, draft, plan. ANT. Form, substance, bulk, figure, field, ground, space; ob- ject, subject. Outrage. Outbreak, offense, vio- lence, mischief, abuse, affront, insult, indignity. ANT. Favor; self-restraint, self-control. Outrageous. Violent, furious, excessive, exorbitant, wanton, atrocious, monstrous, nefari- ous, heinous. ANT. Moderate, reasonable, justifiable. Outskirts. Border, edge, out- post, precincts, environs, sub- urbs. ANT. Interior, center, bulk, mass, body, heart. Outstanding. Uncollected, un- discharged, unappropriated, un- paid ; projecting ; opposing. ANT. Collected, appropri- ated, gathered, paid; support- ing; reentrant. Outward. Out, outer, external, exterior, public, visible, sen- sible, extraneous, superficial, apparent, extrinsic, ostensible. ANT. Internal, intrinsic, in- ward, withdrawn. Overcast. Cloudy, lowering, ob- scured, murky, darkened, over- spread, eclipsed. [ 220 ove] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS ANT. Cloudless, clear, lumi- nous. Overcome. Vanquish, conquer, surmount, excel, overthrow, subjugate, rule, domineer over. ANT. Lose, forfeit, surren- der, fail, submit, retreat, suc- cumb. Overflow, n. Redundancy, inun- dation, deluge, exuberance, su- perabundance. ANT. Subsidence, deficiency, exhaustion. Overruling. Governing, control- ling, superior, predominant, di- recting, prevailing. ANT. Governed, controlled, inferior, subordinate. Oversight. Charge, superin- tendence, management, super- vision, command, care, watch- fulness, surveillance, control, inspection, direction, watch ; omission, error, inadvertence. ANT. Mismanagement, neg- ligence, disregard, slight ; par- ticularity, attention to mi- nutice. Overt. Public, manifest, appar- ent, deliberate, open, avowed. ANT. Covert, secret, furtive, clandestine, implied. Overthrow. Upset, ruin, de- molish, destroy, overcome, de- feat. ANT. Restore, reinstate, re- vive. Overture. Proposal, proposition,, offer, opening, prelude, invita- tion, advance, initiation. ANT. Inaction, quiescence. Overweening. Rash, arrogant, egoistic, vain, haughty, con- ceited. ANT. Affable, courteous, so- ciable, condescending, gracious, polite, approachable. Overwhelm. Submerge, en- gulf, immerse, overpower, ex- tinguish, bury, crush, sink, subdue, vanquish, conquer, de- feat. ANT. Raise, reinstate, rees- tablish, rescue, extricate. Owe. Be indebted for, be obliged for, borrow, hypothecate, at- tribute. ANT. Repay, requite, defray, liquidate. Own. Possess, grant, acknowl- edge, admit, confess, avow. ANT. Lose, disown, abandon, forfeit, alienate, disinherit, ab- jure. Pacific. Appeasing, reconciling, tranquil, mild, calm, peaceful, conciliatory. ANT. Harsh, irritating, ex- asperating, quarrelsome, tur- bulent, tumultuous, war- like. Pacification. Conciliation, com- promise, reconcilement, adjust- ment, reconciliation. ANT. Warfare, fighting, hos- tilities, war. Pact. Agreement, league, com- pact, covenant, bargain, stipu- lation, alliance, bond. ANT. Understanding, prom- ise, parole, honor. Paean. Jubilation. ANT. Dirge. Pagan, a. Gentile, heathen, idol- ater. ANT. Christian, believer. Paganism. Heathenism, poly- theism, pantheism. ANT. Christianity, Christen- dom. [ 221 ] pag] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [par Pageant. Spectacle, exhibition, display, show, ceremony, proces- sion, parade. ANT. Illusion, mockery, fan- tasmagoria, dream. Pageantry. Pomp, parade, dis- play, show, spectacle, splendor, magnificence. Pain, n. Agony, ache, distress, suffering, torture, anguish, tor- ment, pang, throe, paroxysm, twinge, woe, grief. ANT. Ease, peace, rapture, enjoyment, relief, solace, com- fort, delight. Pain, v. Hurt, grieve, afflict, dis- quiet, trouble, distress, agonize, torment, torture. ANT. Please, delight, rejoice, charm, refresh. Painful. Disquieting, trouble- some, afflictive, distressing, la- borious, grievous, toilsome, ar- duous, difficult. ANT. Pleasant, pleasurable, acceptable, agreeable, grateful, desirable, delectable, delicious. Painstaking. Careful, diligent, attentive, faithful, laborious. ANT. Neglectful, heedless, un- mindful, disregardful, improv- ident, thoughtless, careless. Paint. Color, picture, depict, delineate, sketch, draw, por- tray. ANT. Misrepresent, carica- ture, daub. Pair. Two, couple, span, brace, yoke. ANT. One, several, many. Pale. Pallid, white, wan, color- less, dim, sallow. ANT. Ruddy, high-colored, conspicuous, brilliant. Palliate. Cover, conceal, exten- uate, hide, veil, screen, cloak, gloss over, apologize for, miti- gate. ANT. Alleviate; aggravate, heighten, increase, intensify. Palm. Laurels, bays, prize, tro- phy, crown. ANT. Shame, blot, stigma, brand. Palpable. Perceptible, obvious, plain, gross, material, corpo- real, manifest, evident, patent, distinct. ANT. Immaterial, intangible, ethereal, impalpable, indistinct, dubious, imperceptible. Paltry. Contemptible, worth- less, mean, vile, pitiful, trifling. ANT. Valuable, estimable, admirable, worthy, grand, ex- cellent, magnificent. Panegyric. Eulogy, encomium, praise, laudation, commenda- tion. ANT. Satire, sarcasm, tirade, stricture, invective, philippic. Pang. Agony, anguish, distress, paroxysm, throe. ANT. Pleasure, delight, re- freshment, enjoyment, gratifi- cation. Parable. Fable, allegory, apo- logue, similitude. ANT. History, fact, narra- tive. Parade, n. Ostentation, display, show, pomp, pageant, spectacle, procession. ANT. Modesty, humility, re- tirement, simplicity, plainness, seclusion, suppression. Paradise. Bliss, heaven, Eden, ecstasy, Elysium. ANT. Purgatory, hell, tor- ture, misery, torment. Paradox. Contradiction, ambi- guity, absurdity, enigma, mys- tery. ANT. Axiom, postulate, pre- cept, truism, proposition. Parallel. Correspondent, correl- lative, analogous, concurrent, equidistant. ANT. Different, opposed, di- vergent, irrelative, incongruous. F 222 ] par] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [par Paralyze. Deaden, benumb, un- nerve, destroy, impair, enfeeble, prostrate, debilitate. ANT. Nerve, strengthen, re- store, invigorate. Paramount. Supreme, pree"mi- nent, chief, superior, principal. ANT. Minor, inferior, secon- dary, subordinate. Parasite. Flatterer, sycophant, courtier. ANT. Calumniator, traducer, detractor. Pardon, n. Absolution, mercy, forgiveness, forbearance, remis- sion, acquittal, indulgence. ANT. Penalty, punishment, vengeance, retribution, retalia- tion. Pardon, v. Condone, forgive, ab- solve, excuse, overlook, remit, pass over or by, acquit. ANT. Convict, castigate, con- demn, chastise, correct, punish, doom, sentence, scourge, visit upon, recompense, chasten. Pardonable. Excusable, forgiv- able, venial. ANT. Inexcusable, unpar- donable. Parentage. Descent, extraction, lineage, birth, stock, pedigree. Parsimonious. Avaricious, fru- gal, sparing, close, stingy, pe- nurious, niggardly, illiberal. ANT. Liberal, profuse, un- sparing, extravagant. Part, n. Fraction, fragment, sec- tion, atom, segment, element, piece, portion, instalment, con- stituent, component, ingredient, member, particle, share, subdi- vision. ANT. Whole, mass, bulk, en- tirety, quantity, totality. Partake. Share, participate. ANT. Yield, forfeit, forego, relinquish. Partial. Biased, restricted, spe- cific, limited, imperfect, incom- plete, unfair, unjust, warped, interested, inequitable. ANT. Unrestricted, univer- sal, general, equitable, just, un- biased, impartial. Particle. Atom, corpuscle, iota, grain, jot, mite, molecule, ele- ment, whit, tittle, scrap, shred* scintilla. ANT. Mass, quantity, sum, entirety, sum total, whole, ag- gregate, total. Particular, n. Detail, point, fea- ture. ANT. Whole, subject, case. Particular, a. Sole, single, indi- vidual, respective, appropriate, personal, singular, important, peculiar, especial, specific, pre- cise, critical, circumstantial. ANT. Universal, general, com- prehensive, indiscriminate, ab- stract, inaccurate, inexact, un- dis criminating. Parting. Separation, leave-tak- ing, farewell, dividing, division, disruption, detachment. ANT. Union, attachment. Partisan. Adherent, follower, supporter, disciple. ANT. Opponent, antagonist^ adversary. Partition. Division, distribu- tion, separation, allotment, ap- portionment; compartment, in- terspace, barrier. ANT. Combination, inclu- sion, comprehension, collection, union. Partly. In part, somewhat, par- tially, not wholly. ANT. Altogether, entirely, completely, to the full extent. Partner. Associate, colleague, coadjutor, confederate, partici- pator, partaker, comrade, mate, companion. ANT. Rival, competitor, op~ ponent, adversary, alien. Partnership. Company, firm. [ 223 ] pas] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [pan union, connection, society, in- terest, house, association, parti- cipation. ANT. Independence, discon- nection, disjunction, disunion, dissociation. Pass. Go, move, proceed, disap- pear, vanish, depart, take place, occur, elapse, spend, live, ex- perience; transcend, exceed; send, transmit, deliver; utter, promise, pledge; finish. ANT. Hold up; abide, wait, halt, continue, endure. Passable. Navigable, current, acceptable, tolerable, admissi- ble, moderate, traversible, me- diocre. ANT. Impassable, impene- trable, inadmissible, impervi- ous; excellent. Passage. Transit, conveyance, journey, way, road, path, hall, course, progress, process, vesti- bule, corridor. Passible. Susceptible, sensitive, sensible, impressible. ANT. Impassible, insuscepti- ble, unsensitive. Passion. Feeling, emotion, sus- ceptibility, sentiment, ardor, ex- citement, desire, anger, warmth, vehemence. ANT. Indifference, apathy, coldness, coolness, frigidity. Passive. Quiescent, unopposing, enduring, submissive, patient, unresisting, inert, inactive, re- laxed, negative. ANT. Resistant, positive, im- patient, vehement, active, alert. Past. Gone by, elapsed, ended, spent, departed, late, accom- plished. ANT. Present; future. Pastime. Entertainment, recre- ation, sport, play, amusement, diversion. ANT. Business, work, task, labor, occupation, study. Patent. Open, expanded, evident, apparent, manifest, public. ANT. Ambiguous, question- able, dubious. Paternal. Fatherly, tender, care- ful, hereditary. ANT. Careless, rough, harsh; acquired, conferred, won. Path. Footway, track, pathway, route, course, road; method. Pathetic. Affecting, emotional, moving, pitiful, tender, touch- ing, melting, plaintive. ANT. Ludicrous, ridiculous, farcical, unaffecting. Pathless. Untrodden, impene- trable, trackless. ANT. Trodden, frequented. Patience. Composure, calmness, leniency, fortitude, sufferance, submission, endurance, forbear- ance, resignation, long-suffer- ing. ANT. Anger, impatience, ire, passion, fury, frenzy, rage, tem- per, vexation, petulance, wrath, fretfulness, peevishness. Patient. Resigned, passive, en- during, unrepining, calm, for- bearing, long-suffering. ANT. Impatient, insubmis- sive, malcontent, vehement, re- sistant. Patrician. Noble, aristocratic, high-born, well-born. ANT. Plebeian, churlish, or- dinary, peasant. Patrimony. Heritage, inherit- ance, estate. Pattern. Archetype, exem- plar, specimen, sample, design, mold. ANT. Caricature, misrepre- sentation, monstrosity, perver- sion. Paucity. Scantiness, deficiency, fewness, lack, want, rarity. ANT. Fulness, number, fre- qitcnry. abundance, quantity. Pause, M. Stop, cessation, inter- [ 224 ] pau] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [pen ruption, suspension, hesitation, suspense, doubt. ANT. Continuance, continu- ity, perseverance, progress, pro- gression, advancement. Pause, v. Stop, cease, intermit, wait, stay, tarry, demur, hesi- tate. ANT. Continue, proceed, per- sist, persevere, advance. Pay, n. Earnings, stipend, sal- ary, wages, allowance, retainer, remuneration, payment, com- pensation, hire, fee, requital, honorarium. Pay, v. Recompense, requite, sat- isfy, compensate, discharge, re- munerate, fulfil, expend, liqui- date, disburse. ANT. Deprive, defraud, re- tain, exact, hoard, invest. Payment. Pay, compensation, satisfaction, content, salary, re- ward, wages, recompense, re- quital, return. Peace. Quiet, calm, repose, tran- quillity, stillness, silence, har- mony, amity, concord, reconcil- iation, order, pacification. ANT. Noise, disturbance, dis- order, ivar, strife, discord, vari- ance, tumult, agitation, hostil- ity. Peaceable. Peaceful, pacific, un- disturbed, tranquil, quiet, mild, serene, still. ANT. Warlike, quarrelsome, hostile, savage, fierce, violent, restless. Peasant. Countryman, rustic, swain, laborer, villager. ANT. Citizen, townsman. Peculiar. Special, especial, in- dividual, particular, appropri- ate, unusual, singular, strange, rare. ANT. General, universal, or- dinary, public, common. Peculiarity. Individuality, sin- gularity, idiosyncrasy, distinc- tiveness, specialty, characteris- tic, particularity. ANT. Universality, general- ity, uniformity, homogeneity, community. Pedigree. Lineage, descent, an- cestry, genealogy, birth, paren- tage. ANT. Ancestor, founder, ori- gin; plebeianism; extinction. Peer. Equal, match, mate, com- rade, associate; nobleman. ANT. Superior; subordinate. Peerless. Unmatched, matchless, unequaled, unique, superlative, paramount. ANT. Ordinary, mediocre, commonplace. Peevish. Querulous, cross, testy, ill-tempered, captious, discon- tented, petulant, irritable, ill- natured, irascible. ANT. Good-natured, easy, ge- nial, mild, complaisant, gentle. Penal. Punitive, retributive, cor- rective. ANT. Preventive, reparatory; honorary, remunerary. Penalty. Retribution, forfeiture, fine, punishment, amercement, mulct. ANT. Reuxird, tcages, guer- don, prize, honorarium, remu- neration, compensation. Pendent. Pendulous, overhang- ing, hanging, suspended, de- pending. ANT. Supported, sustaining, propped. Penetrate. Enter, pierce, com- prehend, discern, understand, perforate, permeate, fathom. ANT. Glance off, be tangent to, find impermeable; misun- derstand, mistake; float. Penetration. Discernment, sa- gacity, acuteness, discrimina- tion, sharpness, observation, in- sight. ANT. Obtuseness, shortsight* [ 225 ] pen] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [per ednets; stupidity, shallowness, dulness. Penitence. Repentance, contri tion, remorse, sorrow, regret, compunction. ANT. Self-approval, gratula- tion; obduracy, hardhearted- ness. Penitent, Penitential. Repent- ant, contrite, doing penance. ANT. Impenitent, obdurate, hardhearted. Pensive. Thoughtful, sad, wist- ful, meditative, dreamy, sober; serious, mournful, melancholy, solemn, reflective. ANT. Joyous, glad, happy, gay, care-free, thoughtless, un- reflecting. Penurious. Covetous, parsimo- nious, stingy, avaricious, nig- gardly, sordid. ANT. Liberal, bountiful, gen- erous, prodigal. Penury. Want, privation, indi- gence, poverty, destitution, beg- gary, need. ANT. Wealth, abundance, af- fluence, luxury, competence. People. Nation, race, popula- tion, state, tribe, community, commonwealth. Perceivable, Perceptible. Dis- cernible, distinguishable, cog- nizable, observable. ANT. Imperceptible, indis- tinguishable, insensible, inap- preciable. Perceive. Comprehend, appre- hend, conceive, understand. ANT. Ignore, lose, miss, fail of, overlook, misconceive, mis- apprehend. Perception. Discernment, ap- prehension, recognition, under- standing, comprehension, feel- ing, sensation, sense. ANT. Conception, concept, imagination, idea, notion; mis- understanding. Percolate. Filter, strain, exude, drain, ooze. ANT. Flow, rush, stream, run, disgorge. Percussion. Shock, clash, col- lision, concussion, encounter. ANT. Recoil, rebound, rever- beration. Perdition. Loss, ruin, destruc- tion, overthrow, wreck, demoli- tion. ANT. Restoration, recovery, rescue, salvation. Peremptory. Decisive, positive, absolute, final, authoritative, arbitrary, express, dogmatical, determined, resolute. ANT. Hortatory, mild, en- treative, expostulatory, sugges- tive. Perennial. Perpetual, unceas- ing, never failing, enduring, continual, constant, permanent, uninterrupted. ANT. Occasional, intermit- tent, periodic, uncertain; per- ishing, ephemeral, transient, fleeting. Perfect. Finished, complete, en- tire, faultless, consummate, ac- curate, ideal, finished, absolute, completed, correct, immaculate, sinless, blameless, holy, unde- filed, stainless, spotless, un- blemished. ANT. Imperfect, bad, defi- cient, blemished, faulty, cor- rupt, poor, inferior, incomplete, perverted, worthless, spoiled, insufficient, meager, defective, short, scant, marred, defaced, corrupted, deformed, fallible, ruined. Perfection. Excellence, complete- ness, faultlessness, maturity, wholeness, consummation, per- fectness. ANT. Defect, imperfection, incompleteness, blemish. Perfectly. Thoroughly, exqui- [ 226 ] per] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [per sitely, completely, faultlessly, entirely, fully, wholly, exactly, accurately. ANT. Imperfectly, faultily, partially, inaccurately. Perfidious. False, treacherous, faithless, disloyal, dishonest, untrustworthy. ANT. True, loyal, stanch, up- right, faithful, honest, trust- worthy. Perform. Complete, accomplish, execute, do, discharge, fulfil ; represent, act, play, enact, con- summate, achieve. ANT. Spoil, injure, harm, ruin, mar ; fail of, misconduct. Performance. Completion, con- summation, execution, accom- plishment, achievement, work, production, act, action, deed, exploit, feat. ANT. Failure, defeat, omis- sion, abortion, undoing, non- performance. Perfume. Odor, redolence, balmi- ness, fragrance, smell, aroma, scent. ANT. Stench, stink, fume. Perfunctory. Mechanical, care- less, listless, indifferent. ANT. Animated, spirited, as- siduous, careful, ardent, zeal- ous, interested. Perhaps. By chance, peradven- ture, perchance, maybe, haply, possibly. ANT. Certainly, inevitably. Peril. Hazard, risk, jeopardy, danger, venture, insecurity, li- ability. ANT. Safety, assurance, cer- tainty, security. Period. Time, cycle, age, epoch, limit, end, conclusion ; era, du- ration, date, term, continuance, termination, conclusion, bound. ANT. Eternity, infinity, per- petuity, endlessness, everlast- ing. Periodical. Recurring, regular, stated, recurrent, systematic, calculable, serial. ANT. Indeterminate, eccen- tric, fitful, spasmodic, irregu- lar. Permanent. Enduring, abiding, changeless, constant, durable, steadfast, unchangeable, im- mutable, invariable, fixed, un- changing, stable, lasting, per- sistent, perpetual. ANT. Transient, brief, fleet- ing, evanescent, passing, tran- sitory, momentary, temporary, ephemeral. Permission. Authority, allow- ance, consent, liberty, leave, li- cense, permit, authorization. ANT. Hindrance, opposition, objection, denial, prevention, prohibition, refusal, resistance. Pernicious. Mischievous, bane- ful, destructive, noisome, dele- terious, harmful, hurtful, poi- sonous, noxious, pestilential, unhealthful, unwholesome, det- rimental, deadly, evil, foul, in- jurious, insalubrious, pestifer- ous, perverting, ruinous. ANT. Helpful, invigorating, salutary, advantageous, good, favorable, life-giving, rejuven- ating, useful, serviceable, be- neficent, wholesome, beneficial, healthful. Perpetual. Continual, endless, unceasing, unfailing, incessant, constant, eternal, everlasting, perennial, permanent, endur- ing. ANT. Periodic, transient, re- current, temporary, occasional, casual, momentary. Perplex. Entangle, involve, com- plicate, embarrass, puzzle, be- wilder, confuse, distract, annoy, confound, trouble, worry, dis- turb, pester, bother, mystify. ANT. Enlighten, clear, e- [ 227 ] per] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [pic plicate, simplify, elucidate, il- lumine, unfold, explain, mani- fest, calm, quiet, control, please, instruct, solve, illustrate, make intelligible, account for. Perplexity. Confusion, bewil- derment, disturbance, distrac- tion, doubt, embarrassment, as- tonishment, amazement. ANT. Composure, calmness; discernment, insight. Perseverance. Persistency, te- nacity, steadfastness, steadi- ness, constancy, pertinacity, in- defatigableness, resolution. ANT. Fitfulness, caprice, in- stability, variableness, irregu- larity, indecision, vacillation, wavering, irresoluteness. Perspicacity. Acuteness, keen- ness, discernment, penetration, perspicaciousness, insight, sa- gacity, astuteness, distinctness, explicitness. ANT. Dulness, stupefaction, obtuseness, hebetude, stolidity, inobservance, insensibility. Perspicuity. Plainess, lucidity, clearness, explicitness, intelli- gibility, transparency, perspic- uousness. ANT. Obscurity, turbidness, unintelligibility, incomprehen- sibility, indefiniteness, doubt- fulness, mysticism, confusion. Persuade. Dispose, allure, en- tice, urge, move, influence, pre- vail upon, coax, bring over, in- cline, convince, lead, induce, in- cite, win over, impel. ANT. Deter, discourage, re- strain, hinder, repel, dissuade, hold back. Pertinent. Apposite, relevant, suitable, appropriate, proper, fit, adapted. ANT. Unrelated, unsuitable, impertinent, incongruous, alien, unconnected, discordant, inhar- monious. Pertness. Impertinence, bold- ness, forwardness, sauciness, flippancy, impudence, briskness, liveliness, smartness, sprightli- ness. ANT. Diffidence, humility, modesty, shyness, bashfulness, demureness. Perverse. Obstinate, contrary, fractious, froward, intractable, petulant, wilful, wayward, un- governable, stubborn, factious, untoward. ANT. Compliant, genial, ac- commodating, governable, kind, obliging, complaisant, amen- able. Petition, n. Prayer, supplica- tion, entreaty; solicitation, ap- plication, suit, appeal, address. ANT. Protest, claim, expos- tulation, demand, injunction, dictation, exaction, dissension, dissent. Philanthropy. Love, good will, charity, benevolence, humanity, public-spiritedness. ANT. Misanthropy, ill will, selfishness. Philosopher. Student, theorist, speculator, teacher, master, sa- vant, schoolman, doctor; adept. ANT. Learner, pupil, begin- ner; ignoramus, dunce. Philosophical. Rational, wise, temperate, calm, cool, reason- able, sound, collected, composed, sedate, tranquil, Platonic. ANT. Popular, crude, loose, inaccurate, illogical, irrational, unsound, unscientific, thought- less, hotheaded, impulsive. Physical. Material, natural, cor- poral, sensible, visible, tangible, bodily, corporeal. ANT. Mental, spiritual, im- material, unsubstantial, hyper- physical, intangible, moral, un- real, intellectual, invisible. Picturesque. Graphic, vivid, ar- [ 228 ] pie] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS tistic, beautiful, scenic, picto- rial, graceful, comely, seemly. ANT. Unseemly, ugly, inar- tistic, ungraceful, tame, flat, in- Piety. Sanctity, godliness, holi- ness, religion, reverence, devo- tion, grace. ANT. Impiety, sacrilege, sin- fulness, ungodliness, hypocrisy, formalism, sanctimoniousness. Piquant. Tart, sharp, pungent, stimulating, biting, racy, sting- ing, cutting, severe. ANT. Flat, tame, dull, in- sipid. Pique. Resentment, umbrage, ir- ritation, displeasure, grudge, offense. ANT. Delight, gratification, pleasure, satisfaction, content- ment, approval, complacency. Piteous. Sorrowful, mournful, affecting, doleful, lamentable, woful, rueful, sad, pitiable, piti- ful. ANT. Joyous, glad, merry, happy, cheerful, comfortable, desirable, pleasant, agreeable, delectable. Pitiful. Lamentable, mournful, base, contemptible, piteous, pa- thetic, pitiable, touching, sor- rowful, woful, wretched, despic- able, moving, paltry. ANT. Exalted, glorious, help- ful, great, grand, sublime, supe- rior, beneficent, commanding, august, dignified, noble, lofty, mighty, superb. Pity. Sympathy, mercy, tender- ness, condolence, compassion, commiseration. ANT. Cruelty, severity, mer- cilessness, sternness, hardness, rigor, inhumanity, brutality, barbarity, harshness, pitiless- ness, ruthlessness, hard-heart- edness, ferocity, truculence. Placid. Pleased, contented, un- ruffled, undisturbed, peaceful, serene, tranquil, quiet, gentle, collected, calm, composed, pas- sionless. ANT. Discontent, disturbed, distressed, anxious, distracted, perplexed, distrait; vehement, wild, passionate, impulsive, agi- tated, ruffled, excited, impas- sioned. Plain. Artless, undisguised, sin- cere, frank, honest, ingenuous, candid, unembellished, simple, downright, blunt, distinct, ap- parent, manifest, open, clear, evident, visible, obvious, unmis- takable, conspicuous, level, flat, smooth; easy, natural, homely, ugly; simple, frugal. ANT. Unnatural, pretended, affected, assumed, feigned, arti- ficial, insincere, vain, preten- tious, conceited; ornate, orna- mented, decorated, embellished; involved, obscure, hidden, invis- ible, inconspicuous, uneven, un- dulating, rugged, broken, am- biguous, abrupt, obstructed, un- certain, enigmatical, abstruse; beautiful, sophisticated, artful. Plant, v. Seed, set, sow, seed down, set out. ANT. Eradicate, uproot, ex- tirpate, weed out, root up. Plausible. Specious, seeming, pretending, fair-spoken, pass- able, pretentious, ostensible, ap- parent; colorable, feasible. ANT. Genuine, transparent, true, sterling, veritable, unmis- takable, authentic, sincere, un- affected. Plead. Advocate, ask, beg, urge, argue, solicit, entreat, implore, press. ANT. Grant, bestow, an- swer. Pleasant. Kindly, obliging, at- tractive, pleasing, pleasurable, agreeable, kind, good-natured. [ 229 1 pie] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [pol ANT. Disagreeable, gloomy, glum, harsh, hateful, repulsive, unpleasant, repellent, offensive, unkind, forbidding, dreary, ar- rogant, austere, grim, ill-na- tured, ill-humored, repelling. Pleasure. Satisfaction, comfort, solace, joy, gladness, delight, will, chdice, purpose, command, kindness, enjoyment, gratifica- tion, happiness, self-indulgence, voluptuousness. ANT. Suffering, affliction, pain, sorrow, sadness, distress, misery, compulsion, force, coer- cion; mourning, depression, de- jection, melancholy, misfortune, poverty, want. Plenitude. Fulness, abundance, completeness, plenty, repletion, plethora; luxury, affluence, ex- uberance, wealth, richness, pro- fusion, amplitude, enough, sup- ply, sufficiency. ANT. Want, need, scarcity, scantiness, dearth, insufficiency, restriction, poverty, partiality, stint, reserve, narrowness, pen- ury, impecuniosity. Plentiful. Bountiful, generous, large, abundant, adequate, copi- ous, enough, full, profuse, rich, sufficient, complete, exuberant, plenteous, replete, teeming, af- fluent, ample, lavish, liberal, luxuriant, overflowing, abound- ing. ANT. Deficient, drained, im- poverished, scanty, insufficient, small, sparing, stingy, strait- ened, poor, scant, exhausted, in- adequate, mean, miserly, nar- row, niggardly, scarce, short, scrimped. Plot. Intrigue, conspiracy, cabal, contrivance, scheme, stratagem, project, combination, machina- tion; story. ANT. Blunder, botch; mis- arrangemeni, miscontrivance. Poet. Bard, author of poems, singer, rimster, rimer, versifier. Poetical. Metrical, rhythmical, lyric, rimed, versified; imag- inative, fictitious, creative. ANT. Prosaic, unpoetical, unrimed, unversified, unrhyth- mic; commonplace, matter-of- fact, unimaginative, realistic; mathematical, historical. Poetry. Meter, rime, numbers, poesy, song, verse, poem, met- rical composition. ANT. Prose, prosaic speech, prosaic writing. Poignant. Pricking, piercing, sharp, pungent; pointed, keen, satirical. ANT. Blunt, dull, obtuse, in- sipid, pointless, vapid, inexpres- sive. Poisonous. Venomous, baneful, corrupting, noxious, pestilen- tial, malignant, virulent, pes- tiferous, deleterious, mephitic. ANT. Salubrious, loholesome, healthful, beneficial, sanative, genial, remedial, hygienic. Polite. Courteous, civil, courtly, obliging, gracious, polished, ac- complished, complaisant, culti- vated, cultured, elegant, gen- teel, urbane, well-behaved, well- mannered, well-bred. ANT. Awkward, clownish, unmannerly, uncouth, boorish, blunt, impertinent, bsusk, bluff, impolite, insolent, eoarse, ill- bred, ill-behaved, rude, rustic, impudent, ill-mannered, untu- tored, uncivil, untaught, dis- courteous, unpolished, insult- ing. Politeness. Courtesy, civility, gentility, refinement, courtli- ness, elegance, urbanity, good breeding, decorum, complai- sance, affability. ANT. Rudeness, arrogance, incivility, churlishness, ungra- [ 230 ] poo] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [pra ciousness, insolence, sauciness, impertinence, effrontery, pre- sumption. Poor. Needy, indigent, desti- tute; lean, emaciated; feeble, dejected; shabby, mean; unfa- vorable, uncomfortable ; bar- ren; sterile; inadequate, insig- nificant, insufficient; meek. ANT. Rich, wealthy, afflu- ent, opulent; splendid, costly, valuable, estimable; fruitful, abundant, luxuriant, produc- tive, prolific; copious, abound- ing, ample, well- supplied, com- fortable, favorable; adequate, sufficient; important, signifi- cant, arrogant, self-assertive. Popular. Cheap, common, ordi- nary, inferior; familiar, plain, easy, comprehensible; favorite, liked, approved, accepted, ac- credited ; current, prevalent, general, prevailing; pertaining to the people, vulgar, plebeian; mediocre. ANT. Unpopular, exclusive, aristocratic, snobbish; special, excellent, unique, superior, emi- nent; selfish, narrow, illiberal, uncharitable; sole, only, scien- c tific, restricted, esoteric; odi- ous, detested. Position. Situation, station, as- sertion, place, posture, locality, site ; attitude ; state, condition, circumstances ; principle, doc- trine, proposition, dictum, affir- mation, thesis; rank. Positive. Real, actual, absolute, explicit, definite, confident, cer- tain, dogmatic; defined, precise, clear; veritable, substantial, true ; indisputable, incontro- vertible; indubitable; decisive, unconditional, imperative, un- equivocal, settled, assured, ex- press. ANT. Negative, denying, in- direct, disavowing, disclaiming, privative; relative; unreal, fic- titious, imaginative, contingent, dependent, implied, conditional, dubious, unsubstantial, indefi- nite, equivocal. Possession. Control, ownership, tenure, retention, management, occupation; (pi. ) property, es- tate, wealth, dominion. ANT. Dispossession, resigna- tion, surrender, abandoning, re- nouncing. Potent. Powerful, mighty, puis- sant, strong, able, efficient, effi- cacious, forcible, cogent, influ- ential, effective, active, ener- getic. ANT. Impotent, powerless, weak, feeble, infirm; inefficient, incapable, incompetent, inca- pacitated. Potential. Possible, implicit, un- developed, virtual, immanent, inherent, intrinsic. ANT. Actual, explicit, real, objective, developed, express, determinate, positive, clear, definite. Poverty. Distress, beggary, in- digence, destitution, pauperism, penury, privation, want, need, mendicancy. ANT. Wealth, riches, afflu- ence, luxury, comfort. Power. Ability, competency, ca- pacity, faculty, aptitude, dex- terity, efficiency, might, talent, energy, skill, strength, readi- ness, capability, cleverness, ex- pertness, efficacy, force, qualifi- cation, cogency, susceptibility. ANT. Feebleness, weakness, helplessness, impotence, incom- petence, inability, inaptitude, dulness, awkwardness, imbecil- ity, incapacity, inefficiency, un- skilfulness, maladroitness, stu- pidity. Practice, n. Usage, habit, cus- tom; performance, application, [ 231 ] pra] [pra system ; manner, method, mode, experience. ANT. Theory, speculation, assumption, ideal, conjecture, abstraction, Practice, v. Do, perform, exer- cise, carry out, execute; teach, train; habituate, try; apply, use; pursue. ANT. Abandon, misuse, dis- use, neglect, disregard, slight, omit, pass over. Praise, n. Applause, approval, cheering, compliment, acclaim, adulation, acclamation, appro- bation, cheers, plaudit, eulogy, encomium, flattery, laudation, panegyric, sycophancy. ANT. Abuse, blame, censure, contempt, reproach, ignominy, slander, scorn, obloquy, animad- version, condemnation, denun- ciation, disapprobation, dispar- agement, vituperation, reproof, disapproval, repudiation, hiss- ing, vilification. Praise, v. Laud, eulogize, cele- brate, magnify, glorify; honor, commend; applaud, extol, com- pliment. ANT. Decry, blame, censure, reprove, disparage, depreciate, discredit, traduce, condemn. Pray. Ask, beg, beseech, entreat, implore, invoke, petition, sup- plicate, request, importune, bid, plead, call upon, conjure. Precarious. Doubtful, dubious, hazardous, perilous, risky, in- secure, uncertain, unsettled, un- steady, unstable, unassured. ANT. Firm, settled, stable, sure, certain, real, undoubted, unquestionable, actual, assured, immutable, incontestable, unde- niable, infallible, strong, steady. Precaution. Foresight, prudence, forethought, providence, wari- ness, care. ANT. Thoughtlessness, im- providence, carelessness, impru- dence. Precedent, n. Example, antece- dent, case, instance, pattern,, authority, warrant. Precept. Commandment, law, injunction, mandate, rule, di- rection, principle, maxim; doc- trine, dogma; order; instruc- tion. ANT. Hint, suggestion, allu- sion, insinuation, prompting, impulse, instigation. Precise. Accurate, exact, correct, definite, scrupulous, punctili- ous, particular, nice, formal; explicit, terse. ANT. Inaccurate, inexact, in- correct, heedless, careless, in- cautious, implicit, ambiguous, circumlocutory, loose, vague, in- formal, unceremonious. Predatory. Plundering, pillaging, ravaging, rapacious, maraud- ing. ANT. Protecting, guarding, watching, keeping, sheltering, shielding, saving. Predestination. Fate, neces- sity, foreknowledge, foreordina- tion. ANT. Choice, freedom, free will, independence, uncertainty, accident, chance, free agency. Prediction. Prophecy, prognos- tication, foreboding, divination, augury, soothsaying, vaticina- tion, foretelling, presage. ANT. Reminiscence, recol- lection, report; history, nar- ration, account. Preface. Introduction, proem, preamble, prologue, exordium, prelude. ANT. Sequel, postscript, ap- pendix, peroration, epilogue, conclusion. Prefer. Choose, elect, select, de- sire, pick out, fancy, single out, fix upon; elevate, advance, [ 232 1 pre] AND ANTONYMS promote; offer, proffer, pre- sent, address. ANT. Reject, discard, decline, refuse, repudiate; degrade, de- press; postpone, defer, with- hold. Prejudice. Bias, partiality, un- fairness, preconception, pre- possession, presumption. ANT. Certainty, evidence, proof, conviction, conclusion, demonstration, reason, reason- ing. Preliminary. Prior, introduc- tory, preparatory, prefatory, proemial, previous, precedent, antecedent. ANT. Subsequent, follow- ing, consequent, appended, suc- ceeding. Premium. Reward, remunera- tion, recompense, prize, bonus, bounty, guerdon, meed, bribe, douceur, enhancement, gratuity. ANT. Penalty, fine, mulct, amercement, forfeiture, depre- ciation, decline, fall, loss. Preposterous. Irrational, fool- ish, monstrous, absurd, per- verted, extravagant, ridicu- lous, exorbitant. ANT. Reasonable, moderate, right, just, due, fair, judicious, mediocre, commonplace. Presence. Person, personality, individuality, port, mien, ap- pearance, nearness, immedi- acy; vicinity, neighborhood. ANT. Absence, distance, re- moteness, separation; society, world; temperament, charac- ter. Preservation. Security, safety, maintenance, conservation, in- tegrity, protection, care, guar- dianship, watch and ward, soundness. ANT. Exposure, abandon- ment, impairment, peril, dam- age, injury. Presumption. Assumption, ar- rogance, effrontery, audacity, assurance; presupposition, hy- pothesis, guess, conjecture, be- lief, opinion, judgment, under- standing, concession, condi- tion. ANT. Modesty, deference, diffidence, bashfulness, hesita- tion; proof, deduction, demon- stration, verification, certainty f fact. Pretend. Claim, represent, al- lege, simulate, feign, profess; counterfeit. ANT. Verify, substantiate, refute, detect, expose, unmask, test. Pretense. Disguise, excuse, af- fectation, mask, show, preten- sion, semblance, wile, trick, subterfuge, simulation, ruse, assumption, pretext, seeming, dissimulation, air, cloak, color. ANT. Candor, sincerity, in- genuousness, frankness, hon- esty, truth, openness, reality, simplicity, guilelessness, fact, actuality. Prevalence. Success, superior- ity, predominance, preponder- ance; influence, force, power, strength, efficacy; universality, extension, acceptation, custom, operation. ANT. Decay, desuetude, dis- appearance, evanescence, sub- ordination, collapse, destruc- tion, abolition, subsidence, sub- jection, diminution. Previous. Antecedent, before, earlier, precedent, preliminary, introductory, prior, preceding, front, forward, former, fore- going, anterior. ANT. After, concluding, fol- lowing, consequent, later, pos- terior, latter, succeeding, sub- sequent, hindmost, hinder, hind. I 233 pri] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [pro Price. Expense, outlay, worth, expenditure, value, charge, cost. Pride. Arrogance, insolence, re- serve, haughtiness, self-esteem, presumption, superciliousness, vanity, ostentation, conceit, self-respect, self-exaltation, dis- dain, vainglory, self-conceit, self-complacency. ANT. Humility, lowliness, modesty, self-distrust, meek- ness, self -abasement. Primary. First, fundamental, primitive, original, prepara- tory; chief, principal, pristine; elementary, leading. ANT. Secondary, posterior, subsequent, later, following; unimportant, subordinate, in- ferior; supplemental, auxiliary. Prime, n. Perfection, culmina- tion, apex, zenith; dawn, open- ing, youth, spring, beginning; cream, flower. ANT. Wane, winter, even- ing ; decadence, decay. Primeval. Immemorial, orig- inal, old, primal, patriarchal, native, primitive, pristine, un- created, ancient, aboriginal, au- tochthonic, indigenous, prime, primary, primordial. ANT. Foreign, fresh, late, modern, new, novel, recent, ex- otic, adventitious. Principal. Highest, most im- portant, chief, main; leading, foremost, preeminent, capital, essential; primary, first. ANT. Subordinate, inferior, secondary, auxiliary, supple- mental, minor, dependent, sub- servient, ancillary. Principle. Source, cause, ori- gin; faculty, endowment; pos- tulate, truth, maxim, axiom; rule, law; element; doctrine, dogma, opinion ; ground, mo- tive, reason; integrity, recti- tude, uprightness, probity, vir- tue, worth, honor. ANT. Result, sequence, devel- opment, issue; application, ac- tion, operation, exercise, mani- festation, exhibition; iniquity, immorality. Prize. Trophy, honor, reward, premium, guerdon, palm, laur- els; capture; gain, advantage; spoil, plunder, booty. ANT. Loss, failure, fine, for- feiture; brand, stigma, infamy. Probation. Examination, trial, ordeal, test, assay, proof, ex- periment. ANT. License, irresponsi- bility, non-probation. Proclaim. Publish, announce, declare, promulgate, herald, ad- vertise, enunciate, utter, blaze abroad, report, make known. ANT. Silence, repress, sup- press, conceal, secrete; retract, recall. Prodigal, a. Extravagant, pro- fuse, lavish, bountiful, waste- ful, squandering. ANT. Economical, thrifty, saving, frugal; close, miserly, niggardly. Profession. Avowal, declara- tion, claim; occupation, voca- tion, employment; law, theol- ogy, or medicine; assertion, ac- knowledgment; representation, pretense, protestation. ANT. Denial, concealment, suppression; retraction, recan- tation, disavowal; leisure, fad, hobby, avocation; trade, busi- ness. Proficient. Expert, adept, skil- ful, skilled, competent, conver- sant, qualified, practiced, ac- complished, finished, trained. ANT. Unskilled, inexpert, awkward, ignorant, backward, inconversant, incompetent, un- trained, unpracticed, inept. [ 234 ] pro] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [pro Profit. Gain, advantage, bene- fit, emolument, improvement, proceeds, utility, usefulness, re- turns, value, receipts, avail, expediency, good, service. ANT. Damage, destruction, harm, hurt, loss, injury, waste, ruin, detriment, disadvantage. Profitable. Lucrative, beneficial, useful, advantageous, produc- tive, desirable, gainful, remun- erative. ANT. Useless, vain, fruit- less, unproductive, unremuner- ative, unprofitable, undesirable, disadvantageous, detrimental, unbeneficial. Profound. Deep, descending ; thorough ; fathomless, abys- mal ; mysterious, abstruse, oc- cult, obscure, recondite; com- plete ; penetrating, intimate, intense, philosophical. ANT. Superficial, shallow, commonplace, external, slight, apparent, obvious, incomplete; surface. Progress. Advance, advance- ment, attainment, increase, im- provement, proficiency, progres- sion, growth, development. ANT. Delay, check, retro- gression, stay, stop, stoppage, falling off, relapse, decline, falling back. Prohibit. Forbid, hinder, in- hibit, interdict, preclude, pre- vent, debar, disallow. ANT. Allow, empower, let, license, order, require, sanction, authorize, command, direct, en- join, permit, warrant, suffer, tolerate, put up with, give per- mission, give consent, consent to. Prolific. Fertile, fruitful, pro- ductive, generating, teeming, active. ANT. Barren, sterile, unpro- ductive, unfruitful, effete. Prolix. Long, diffuse, tiresome, prolonged, protracted; wordy, verbose, prosaic, rambling, dis- cursive; tedious, wearisome. ANT. Condensed, terse, con- cise, brief, laconic, curt, epi- grammatic. Prominent. Projecting, mani- fest, protuberant, conspicuous; eminent, distinguished, famous, celebrated, important, main, principal, leading, characteris- tic. ANT. Receding, hollowed, concave, indented, engraved; insignificant, secondary, unim- portant, minor, indistinguish- able, indistinct, subordinate, in- conspicuous, trivial, immate- rial, unessential. Promote. Encourage, forward, foster, push, advance, aid, as- sist, foment, excite, furth'er, help, raise, urge forward, urge on, elevate, exalt. ANT. Abase, allay; hinder, prevent, foil, frustrate. Prompt. Ready, quick, agile, alert, brisk, nimble, expedi- tious; willing, hasty, inclined, disposed, responsive, unhesitat- ing. ANT. Dilatory, slow, tardy, lingering, loitering, inactive, sluggish, unready, unrespon- sive, procrastinating, behind- hand, backward. Pronounce. Deliver, speak, ut- ter, articulate, enunciate; de- clare, affirm; propound, assert, express. ANT. Mispronounce, gab- ble, mumble; silence, suppress; deny, retract. Propagate. Increase, diffuse, disseminate, promote; spread, extend, generate, promulgate, circulate. ANT. Strangle, stifle, extin- guish, suppress, repress, check t [ 235 ] pro] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [pro hush up; contract, diminish, reduce; contradict, deny. Proper. Own, individual, pecul- iar, particular; right, fit, de- cent; personal, constitutional, special, specific; suitable, ap- propriate, seemly, legitimate ; decent, respectable. ANT. Common, universal, general; unfitting, inappropri- ate, unsuitable, unseemly, inde- cent, wrong, improper, unbe- coming, unbefitting. Propitiation. Expiation, sat- isfaction, atonement, reconcili- ation. ANT. Reprobation, retribu- tion, vengeance, wrath, aliena- tion, estrangement, curse, pen- alty, punishment, offense, con- demnation, chastisement. Propitious. Auspicious, kind, benign, gracious, friendly, be- nignant, clement, kindly, fa- vorable, merciful. ANT. Adverse, antagonistic, hostile, repellent, unfriendly, unpropitious, unfavorable, ill- disposed, forbidding, inauspi- cious. Proportion. Ratio, symmetry, relation, harmony, share, lot; equality, similarity ; adjust- ment, distribution; arrange- ment, adaptation. ANT. Disproportion, dispar- ity, disorder, incongruity, dis- crepancy, absurdity, contrari- ety. Proposal. Bid, offer, overture, proposition. ANT. Acceptance, denial, re- fusal, rejection, repulse, disap- proval. Proposition. Proposal, state- ment, offer, declaration; over- ture, suggestion, proffer, ten- der; position, thesis, dictum, assertion, affirmation, doctrine. ANT. Withdrawal, recanta- tion, abjuration, disavowal, rev- ocation. Prosperity. Thrift, weal, wel- fare, happiness, well-being, suc- cess, good fortune. ANT. Woe, misfortune, ill luck, failure, adversity, calam- ity, reverses, affliction, distress, disaster, misery. Protest, v. Assert, aver, attest, testify; affirm, declare; assev- erate, avow, profess; expostu- late, remonstrate, repudiate, deprecate, denounce. ANT. Retract, utithdraic, ab- jure, revoke; coincide, sanction, agree, endorse, subscribe, ac- quiesce. Protract. Defer, continue, delay, extend, elongate, lengthen, pro- crastinate, postpone, prolong, draw out. ANT. Abbreviate, contract, conclude, hasten, hurry, reduce, shorten, abridge, curtail, limit. Proud. Arrogant, haughty, pre- sumptuous, lordly; worthy, ad- mirable, grand, splendid, mag- nificent, ostentatious ; lofty, su- percilious, imperious, boast- ful, elated, imposing, vainglo- rious. ANT. Humble, unassuming, unobtrusive, meek, lowly, mild, submissive, unpretending, def- erential, affable, unpresuming, mean. Proverb. Axiom, byword, dic- tum, adage, aphorism, maxim, motto, precept, truism, saying, saw, apothegm. Provide. Prepare, supply, af- ford, contribute, furnish; en- gage, bargain, agree ; stipulate ; procure. ANT. Neglect, withhold, re- fuse, mismanage, appropriate, overlook; divert, alienate, mis- use; fail, disappoint. Provocation. Vexation, incite- [ 2.18 1 pro] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS ment, stimulus, incentive; af- front, insult, offense, indig- nity. ANT. Pacification, mitiga- tion, assuagement; deference, compliment, homage, honor, re- spect. Prowess. Heroism, valor, gal- lantry, bravery, courage, in- trepidity. ANT. Fear, effeminacy, ti- midity, cowardice, cowardli- ness, pusillanimity. Prudence. Discretion, frugal- ity, forethought, judgment, ju- diciousness, providence, care, caution, foresight, wisdom, con- sideration, carefulness, circum- spection. ANT. Folly, heedlessness, prodigality, recklessness, indis- cretion, wastefulness, improvi- dence, imprudence, thoughtless- ness, rashness. Prudent. Cautious, considerate, judicious, provident; circum- spect, sagacious, wise, discreet; frugal, economical, thrifty. ANT. Reckless, inconsider- ate, improvident, wasteful, ex- travagant, lavish, prodigal; in- discreet, unwise; foolish, rash, imprudent, audacious. Public. Common, general, popu- lar, social, open; notorious. ANT. Private, individual, se- cret, domestic, secluded, close, personal. Punctilious. Exact, particular, precise, careful, nice, scrupu- lous, conscientious ; punctual, ceremonious. ANT. Careless, slovenly, un- scrupulous; informal, uncere- monious. Puny. Small, feeble, inferior, petty; weak, diminutive, unde- veloped, dwarfed, stunted, un- dersized, tiny. ANT. Large, great, rolu-st, developed, fine, vigorous; colos- sal, gigantic. Pupil. Learner, disciple, student, novice, ward, tyro. ANT. Teacher, master, profi- cient, scholar, adept; guardian. Purchase, v. Buy, obtain, pro- cure, secure, acquire, bargain for, barter for, get. ANT. Exchange, sell, barter, dispose of, put to sale. Pure. Innocent, unsullied, spot- less, unspotted, stainless, true, guiltless, incorrupt, clean, gen- uine, chaste, guileless, classic, classical, holy, immaculate, vir- tuous, real, sheer, mere, simple, unmixed, unpolluted, unadul- terated, unmingled, undefiled, unblemished, uncorrupted, un- stained, untainted, untarnished, upright, perfect. ANT. Impure, indecent, pol- luted, foul, tainted, unchaste, immodest, lewd, obscene, indeli- cate, defiled, dirty, filthy, gross, mixed, stained, sullied, unclean, tarnished, adulterated. Purpose, n. Design, end, inten- tion, aim, scope, meaning, ob- ject, plan, intention, purport, effect, project. ANT. Lot, chance, accident, haphazard, casualty, fate. Put. Deposit, place, set, lay; cause, produce, propose, state; attach, attribute, assign; as- sume, suppose; entice, con- strain. ANT. Remove, raise, with- draw, displace, transpose, trans- fer, change. Putrid. Decayed, decomposed, rotten, stinking, putrefied, foul, offensive. ANT. Clean, sweet, whole- some, fragrant, pure, healthful, fresh. [ 237 ] qua] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [qui Q Quaint. Odd, antique; curious, fanciful, affected, whimsical ; archaic, singular, unusual ; an- tiquated, extraordinary, droll. ANT. Commonplace, usual, ordinary, common; fashionable, modish, modern. 'Quality. Property, peculiarity, sort, disposition, temper; char- acter, attribute, rank, part, po- sition; characteristic; acquisi- tion; nature, trait, mood, con- dition, station, capacity, ten- dency. ANT. Negation, heterogene- ity, anomalousness, lack of dis- tinction, nondescript, weakness, ineffectiveness, incapacity, dis- qualification. Quantity. Greatness, measure, amount, bulk, extent, size, ag- gregate, length, duration, con- tent, comprehensiveness. ANT. Scantiness, want, de- ficiency, margin, deterioration, diminution, waste, wear, loss. Queer. Curious, bizarre, droll, comical, odd, peculiar, quaint, strange, uncommon, unusual, whimsical, singular, ridiculous, anomalous, fantastic, funny, er- ratic, extraordinary, ludicrous, grotesque, laughable, preposter- ous, unique, unmatched, eccen- tric, crotchety. ANT. Common, customary, normal, ordinary, usual, regu- lar, familiar, natural. Querimonious, Querulous. La- menting, complaining, whining, bewailing, mourning, murmur- ing, discontented, dissatisfied, malcontent. ANT. Contented, easy, uncom- plaining, satisfied, complacent, cheerful, genial, good-tempered. Query, Question, n. Inquiry, doubt; point, topic, subject; dispute, discussion, debate; in- vestigation, examination ; ex- perimentation, scrutiny, inter- rogation. ANT. Solution, explanation, answer, reply, response; conces- sion, admission. Question, v. Ask, interrogate, catechize, doubt, controvert, dis- pute; examine, converse with; call in question ; inquire, inves- tigate, query, tlubitate. ANT. Answer, reply, satisfy, respond. Quick. Speedy, expeditious, ac- tive, rapid, nimble, fleet, alert, lively, sprightly; alive, living, animate; agile, brisk, ready; hasty, swift; impatient, eager, passionate ; fresh, bracing, keen, sharp ; sensitive, perceptive, in- telligent. ANT. Slow, tardy, inactive, inert, sluggish, dull, insensitive, deliberate, gradual, moderate, late, unready, dilatory, slack, unresponsive, lingering, heavy, stupid, wearisome. Quicken. Hasten, hurry, accel- erate, despatch, drive, expedite, facilitate, further, speed, urge, promote, advance, make haste, press forward. ANT. Hinder, impede, check, obstruct, retard, clog, delay. Quiet, n. Rest, repose, tranquil- lity, silence, calm, peace, still- ness. ANT. Tumult, noise, shout- ing, action, commotion, activ- ity, storm; unrest, excitement, agitation, disturbance, turmoil. Quiet, a. Tranquil, unruffled, smooth, unmolested, peaceful, undisturbed, peaceable, calm, patient, contented, hushed, still, placid; gentle, mild, un- demonstrative, meek. [ 238 ] quo] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [rap ANT. Turbulent, tumultu- ous, uproarious, disturbed, agi- tated, wild, excited, violent, un- easy, boisterous, restless, con- futed, noisy. Quote. Cite, recite, plagiarize, repeat, excerpt, extract, para- phrase. ANT. Suppress, ignore, di*~ dain, omit. R Babble. Mob, crowd, people, pop- ulace; herd, the masses, mul- titudes, commonalty ; scum, dregs. ANT. Aristocracy, nobility, elite, galaxy. Racy. Lively, piquant, pungent, spicy, spirited, forcible, flavor- ous, rich. ANT. Flat, cold, flavorless, insipid, stale, stupid, tasteless, dull, prosy, vapid. Radiant. Lustrous, brilliant, splendid, gorgeous, glittering, glaring, radiating, beaming, re- splendent, shining, sparkling, luminous, effulgent, glorious. ANT. Dull, dark, somber, murky, lusterless, non-lumi- nous, sunless, shadowy, lurid, cloudy, gloomy, obscure, over- cast, ebon, black. Radical. Fundamental, innate, essential, native, natural, orig- inal, organic, primitive ; entire, complete, extreme, thorough, positive, perfect, thorough-go- ing, total; ingrained, constitu- tional. ANT. Superficial, tentative, trial; inadequate, incomplete, moderate, partial, palliative, slighl; conservative. liaise. Lift, elevate, heave; ex- alt, advance, enhance ; increase, excite, aggravate, intensify, heighten, set upright; awaken, arouse, originate, produce, ef- fect, cause; build, erect; levy, collect; propagate, breed, rear; bring up, incite, start; utter, summon; cultivate. ANT. Depress, lower, drop, sink, let doion; degrade, dis- grace; debase, humble, reduce} lessen, diminish, decrease. Ramble. Rove, roam, wander, range, stroll, saunter, straggle, stray. ANT. Speed, hasten, drive, run, proceed, rush, hurry. Random, a. Chance, haphazard, fortuitous, casual, wandering, stray, wild, aimless, purpose- less, unpremeditated, acciden- tal, vague. ANT. Aimed, intended, con- trolled, purposed, deliberate, designed, intentional, regular, systematic, planned. Ransom, v. Redeem, liberate,, rescue, deliver, release, emanci- pate, indemnify. ANT. Hold for ransom, kid- nap, imprison, hold as hostage, indict, fine, mulct, prosecute. Rapid. Swift, quick, fast, fleet, hasty, brisk, expeditious, hur- ried. ANT. Slow, deliberate, cum- brous, lazy, retarded, moder- ate, gradual, dilatory, linger- ing, tardy. Rapidity. Rapidness, haste, ce- lerity, speed, velocity, agility, swiftness, fleetness, quickness, despatch. ANT. Sloioness. dilatoriness, tardiness, delay, deliberateness^ moderation. [ 239 ] Tar] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [rea Hare. Curious, extraordinary, incomparable, odd, peculiar, re- markable, precious, scarce, sin- gular, strange, uncommon, un- usual, unprecedented, unique, unparalleled, infrequent. ANT. General, usual, nor- mal. Hash. Precipitate, headlong, in- discreet, foolhardy, hasty, heed- less, thoughtless, incautious, careless, inconsiderate, unwary. ANT. Cautious, wary, dis- creet, thoughtful, prudent, cel- culating; timid, hesitating, re- luctant. Bational. Sane, sound, intelli- gent, reasonable, sensible, wise, discreet, judicious; reasoning, intellectual ; sagacious, equi- table, enlightened. ANT. Irrational, insane, un- sound, foolish, absurd, injudi- cious, unreasonable, preposter- ous, unintelligent, extravagant. Haw. Unprepared, uncooked, immature, unripe, unseasoned, inexperienced, unpracticed, un- tried, unwrought, unfinished ; bare, galled; chilly, bleak. ANT. Cooked, dressed, pre- pared, developed, mature, ripe, mellow, seasoned, practiced, ex- perienced, tried, tested, expert, habituated, familiar, trained; healed; genial, balmy. Heach. Attain, arrive, get to, enter, land, come to, gain. ANT. Depart, leave, set out, weigh anchor, embark, start, go, go away, set sail. Heady. Prompt, expeditious, speedy, unhesitating, dexter- ous, apt, skilled, handy, expert, facile, easy, opportune, fitted, prepared, disposed, free, will- ing, cheerful. ANT. Tardy, slow, inexpedi- tious, hesitating, clumsy, inept, unskilled, inexpert, hard, diffi- cult, inopportune, unfit, ill-pre- pared, unwilling, reluctant, un- responsive, unaccommodating. Heal. Actual, veritable, genu- ine, demonstrable, substantial, authentic, certain ; developed, essential, positive; true, un- questionable. ANT. Illusory, imaginary, unreal, untrue, supposititious, fictitious, hypothetical, fabu- lous, fanciful, conceived, sup- posed, feigned, reported, vision- ary, theoretical. Reality. Verity, actuality, sub- stance, truth, genuineness, au- thenticity, fact, substantiality, existence. ANT. Fiction, falsehood, un- truth, myth, imagination, fab- rication, fancy, supposition, unreality, chimera, vision, hy- pothesis, hollowness. Realm. Domain, kingdom, re- gion, province, country, depart- ment, empire, state; jurisdic- tion, sovereignty, dominion. ANT. Anarchy, insurrection; independence; democracy. Rear. Lift, elevate, erect, raise, build, establish, exalt, foster, construct, breed, educate, in- struct, train, discipline, cher- ish. ANT. Tear down, degrade, undermine, depress, overthrow; destroy, kill, demolish, subvert, stifle, extinguish. Reason, n. Cause, ground, aim, motive, account, argument, de- sign, consideration, end, object, purpose, principle. ANT. Pretext, pretense, fal- sification; unreason, unreason- ableness, irrationality, absurd- ity, fallacy. Reason, v. Debate, demonstrate, argue, contend, discuss, prove, establish, question, controvert, wrangle, dispute. [ 240 ] rea] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [rec ANT. Quibble, pervert, equiv- ocate, evade, mystify ; cavil, re- fine; misrepresent; dictate, as- sert. Reasoning. Argument, argu- mentation, debate, ratiocina- tion. ANT. Sophistry, instinct, in- tuition, presentiment. Rebellious. Intractable, refrac- tory, seditious, unmanageable, contumacious, disobedient, in- subordinate, mutinous, ungov- ernable, uncontrollable. ANT. Deferential, compli- ant, docile, manageable, obedi- ent, submissive, subservient, yielding, tractable, gentle, con- trollable, dutiful. Recant. Retract, revoke, recall, abjure, disown, disavow, re- nounce. ANT. Profess, confess, as- sert, declare, enunciate, main- tain, hold; vindicate. Reception. Admission, receipt; entertainment ; acceptance, cre- dence; welcome. ANT. Rejection, dismissal, repudiation, denial, protest, re- nunciation, disavowal. Recite. Describe, recapitulate, detail, number; repeat, deliver, rehearse; relate, narrate, re- count; quote; count, enumer- ate, tell. ANT. Misquote, garble, fal- sify, misrepresent, pervert; for- get, fail. Reckless. Mindless, negligent, thoughtless, regardless, uncon- cerned, inattentive, remiss, im- provident, rash, inconsiderate. ANT. Circumspect, careful, wary, thoughtful, mindful, at- tentive, considerate, provident, prudent, calculating. Recognize. Acknowledge, con- fess, own, allow, concede, iden- tify, avow. ANT. Overlook, repudiate, disown, ignore, disavow, dis* claim. Reconcile. Placate, propitiate, pacify, appease; conciliate, re- unite, content, harmonize; ad- just, settle, compose. ANT. Separate, sever, alien' ate, estrange, disaffect. Reconciliation. Reconcilement, reunion, pacification, appease- ment, propitiation, atonement, expiation; adjustment, restora- tion, harmony. ANT. Separation, estrange- ment, alienation, disaffection. Record. Account, entry, enrol- ment, catalogue, enumeration, inventory, register, roll; ar- chive, chronicle, document, his- tory, inscription, instrument, memorandum, memorial, muni- ment, schedule, scroll. Recover. Cure, heal, retrieve, restore; be cured or healed, re- cruit, recuperate, resume; re- animate, repossess. ANT. Relapse, sink, die, fail, grow worse. Recovery. Repossession, resump- tion ; recruiting, healing, resto- ration; regaining, recupera tion, convalescence, retrieval, redemption, resuscitation, re- vival ; vindication, reinstate- ment, reestablishment. ANT. Loss, forfeiture, pri- vation, damage, ruin, destruc- tion, waste : illness, relapse, de- clension, incurableness, hope- lessness. Recreation. Sport, amusement, diversion, refreshment, reani- mation; holiday, pastime, re- laxation. ANT. Toil, labor, work, in- dustry, employment, fatigue, weariness, lassitude, exhaus- tion. Rectitude. Justice, honesty, up- red] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [reh Tightness, fairness, integrity, straightforwardness, conscien- tiousness, equity. ANT. Iniquity, wrong, injus- tice, immorality, corruption, dishonesty, duplicity, under- handedness. Redemption. Ransom, release, rescue, retrieval, recovery, de- liverance, liberation, salvation; discharge, fulfilment ; atone- ment, compensation. ANT. Abandonment, forfeit- ure, sacrifice, betrayal, depriva- tion, desertion. Reduce. Lessen, decrease, cur- tail, abate, shorten, impair, lower, subjugate, subject; di- minish, attenuate, abridge, con- tract; subdue. ANT. Magnify, augment, ex- pand, amplify, exalt, raise, in- vigorate, promote, restore, re- pair, renovate, transform. Redundant. Exuberant, super- abundant, overflowing, pleo- nastic ; superfluous, excessive, copious, plentiful; unneces- sary. ANT. Requisite, necessary, sufficient, enough; scanty, de- ficient, scarce, wanting, lack- ing, incomplete, inadequate, in- sufficient. Refinement. Culture, elegance, cultivation, civilization, po- liteness. ANT. Coarseness, grossness, rudeness, rusticity, barbarism, boorishness, brutality, clown- ishness, savagery, vulgarity. Reflect. Consider, think, cogi- tate, meditate, contemplate, ru- minate, ponder, muse; animad- vert. ANT. Idle, dream, imagine, fancy, wander, rove; disregard, neglect. Reform, v. Amend, correct, rec- tify, emend, repair, better, im- prove, restore, reclaim, mend; remodel. ANT. Corrupt, impair, viti- ate, deteriorate, deform; spoil, deprave, pollute, defile, injure, contaminate. Refuge. Shelter, asylum, re- treat, covert; protection, sanc- tuary, stronghold, defense; hid- ing-place, harbor. ANT. Exposure, peril, snare, menace, pitfall, danger, threat. Regard, v. Consider, observe, re- mark, heed, mind, respect* es- teem, estimate, value; attend, notice; contemplate; revere, reverence. ANT. Overlook, disregard, miss, neglect, omit; misprize; dislike, hate, loathe; contemn. Regret, n. Grief, concern, sor- row, lamentation, repentance, penitence, self-condemnation; compunction, remorse, contri- tion. ANT. Joy, exultation, hap- piness, delight, self-gratula* tion, approbation; praise, com- mendation; felicitation. Regular. Orderly, methodical; conformable, agreeing; gov- erned, subject; normal; consti- tuted, selected; customary, sys- tematic, stated, established, pe- riodical, recognized, formal, re- current, certain. ANT. Unusual, exceptional, rare, irregular, abnormal, ec- centric, capricious, variable, uncertain, erratic. Regulation. Rule, method, prin- ciple, precept; adjustment, dis- posal ; arrangement, ordering, disposition, government, con- trol. ANT. Disorder, anarchy, li- cense, misgovernment, misrule, non-regulation, cap-rice, malad- justment, derangement. Rehearse. Recapitulate, detail, [ 242 ] rej] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [rem recount, describe, tell ; narrate, repeat, recite, relate; practice. ANT. Misrepresent; act, per- form, pla;/. Rejoice. Delight, joy, exult, tri- umph, please, cheer, exhilarate, gladden, transport, charm, en- liven, gratify, make happy. ANT. Mourn, grieve, weep, lament, pain, distress, defeat, sadden, deaden, vex, annoy, op- press, afflict, trouble, depress, burden, deject. Relation. Recital, rehearsal, ac- count, narration, tale, narra- tive, detail, description; kin- dred, affinity, consanguinity, kinsman, kinswoman; connec- tion, association, pertinency, relevancy, agreement. ANT. Action, happening, oc- currence; alien, stranger, for- eigner; absoluteness, disagree- ment, dissociation, disconnec- tion, irrelevancy. Belease, v. Discharge, extricate, disengage, quit, acquit; free, loose, liberate; exempt, indem- nify; deliver, remit. ANT. Hold, bind, constrain, confine, fetter, shackle, fine, imprison, sentence, condemn. Relief. Alleviation, mitigation, aid, help, succor, assistance, re- dress, remedy, indemnification; exemption, deliverance, refresh- ment, support, comfort. ANT. Oppression, persecu- tion, aggravation, severity, cru- elty; weariness, discomfort, ex- haustion. Religion. Devotion, faith, pi- ety, righteousness, holiness, mo- rality, godliness, pietism, wor- ship, theology. ANT. Irreligion, atheism, un- belief, blasphemy, impiety, god- lessness, profanity, sacrilege, ungodliness, wickedness. Relinquish. Resign, leave, quit, forsake, abandon, renounce, de- sert, forbear, forego; surrender, discontinue. ANT. Retain, hold, Iceep, de- tain, preserve, support, cling to, sustain, maintain; continue, be constant to, persevere, persist. Reluctant. Loath, slow, disin clined, indisposed, averse, back- ward, opposed, unwilling. ANT. Eager, favorable, will- ing, inclined, desirous, disposed. Remain. Wait, tarry, rest, so- journ, last, dwell ; stay, abide, continue, endure; survive, out- live. ANT. Leave, abandon, depart, remove, go, disappear, flit; die, pass. Remark. Comment, note, obser- vation, utterance, annotation. Remarkable. Observable, rare, noticeable, extraordinary, un- usual, strange, wonderful, not- able, eminent: distinguished, famous, prominent, conspicu- ous; singular, peculiar, individ- ual. ANT. Ordinary, usual, com- monplace, mediocre, everyday, common, general. Remembrance. Memory, recol- lection, reminiscence; memento, souvenir, memorandum, memo- rial, token. ANT. Oblivion, forgetful- ness. Reminiscence. Memory, recol- lection, remembrance; remnant, relic, trace. ANT. Oblivion, forgetful- ness; announcement, warning, suggestion, prognostic. Remote. Removed, far, distant; irrelevant, not related ; foreign, indirect, unconnected, alien, un- allied; separate, abstract. ANT. Near, close, direct, re- lated, connected, contiguous, immediate; present, pressing. I 243 ] ren] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [rep urgent; proximate; essential, important. Rend. Burst, break, rip, sever, mangle, rupture, sunder, tear, lacerate, rive, slit. ANT. Mend, reunite, secure, unite, weld, heal, join, solder, sew, stitch. Render. Return, pay back, re- store; requite; give up, yield, surrender; furnish, contribute, deliver ; translate, interpret, set forth, exhibit, try out; ap- portion, give, present, assign. ANT. Keep, withhold, appro- priate, retain, refuse, use, ap- ply, employ; alienate, misap- portion. Renounce. Abandon, abjure, de- ny, disavow, disown, forswear, disclaim, retract, repudiate, re- voke, recall, refuse, reject, dis- card, recant. ANT. Advocate, avow, claim, assert, defend, hold, proclaim, own, acknowledge, cherish, re- tain, uphold, vindicate, main- tain. Renown. Fame, distinction, no- tice, repute, name, reputation, celebrity, honor, glory, emi- nence. ANT. Disgrace, shame, dis- honor, disrepute, discredit, deg- radation, taint, stain, brand. Renunciation. Denial, disown- ment, renouncement, disclaim- er, rejection, abjuration, recan- tation, abandonment. ANT. Maintenance, support, vindication, assertion, defense, apology, justification. Repeat. Reiterate, renew, re- late, recapitulate, recite, repro- duce, rehearse, renovate. ANT. Discontinue, drop, end, finish, stop, cease, break off, in- terrupt. Repentance. Penitence, regret, remorse, sorrow, compunction, contrition, self-condemnation, contriteness. ANT. Impenitence, obsti- nacy, obduracy; comfort, com- placency, approval, hardness, content, self-approval, self- complacency, self-congratula- tion; stubbornness. Repletion. Fulness, superabun- dance, plethora, abundance, am- plitude, sufficiency, enough. ANT. Scarcity, want, lack, insufficiency, need. Reply. Answer, respond, rejoin, replicate. ANT. Question, query, ask, inquire; disregard, pass, drop, ignore. Report. Account, description, narration, narrative, recital, re- hearsal, relation, record, tale., rumor, statement, story. ANT. Allegory, fabrication, fiction. Repose, n. Rest, recumbency, reclination, ease, quiet, quiet- ness, tranquillity, peace; calm- ness, quiescence. ANT. Unrest, agitation, tu- mult, movement, restlessness, turmoil, commotion, distrac- tion. Represent. Present anew, por- tray, typify, delineate; person- ate, act; perform; depict, de- scribe, show, exhibit. ANT. Misrepresent; falsify, caricature, distort. Reproach, n. Disrepute, oppro- brium, discredit, dishonor, in- vective, contumely, reviling, vil- ification, abuse, scurrility, inso- lence, insult, scorn, contempt, ignominy, shame, scandal, dis- grace, infamy. ANT. Approbation, satisfac- tion, praise, encouragement, ex- altation, commendation, honor, applause, eulogy, assent, accep- tance, approval. [ 244 ] rep] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [res Reproach, -w. Chide, rebuke, re- vile, condemn, vilify; blame, censure, taunt, upbraid, re- prove. ANT. Praise, approve, com- mend, laud, applaud, eulogize. Reproof. Comment, criticism, disapproval, chiding, reproach, upbraiding, reproval, admoni- tion, animadversion; censure, blame, condemnation, denunci- ation, objurgation, reprehen- sion, rebuke, reprimand; re- flection, check. ANT. Commendation, pane- gyric, approbation, applause, approval, encomium, praise, eu- logy. Reprove. Admonish, blame, re- proach, censure, condemn, rep- rimand, warn, upbraid, chide, check, chasten, find fault with, expostulate with, rebuke, repre- hend, remonstrate with, take to task. ANT. Abet, applaud, encour- age, cheer, countenance, incite, urge on, impel, instigate, ap- prove. Repugnant. Opposite, opposed, adverse, contrary, inconsistent, irreconcilable, hostile, inimical; incompatible, loath ; heteroge- neous. ANT. Harmonious, friendly, amicable, wining, consistent, compatible, congruous; homoge- neous. Reputable. Honorable, respec- table, estimable, creditable. ANT. Disreputable, disgrace- ful, dishonorable, discreditable, despicable. Requite. Avenge, pay off, quit, punish, retaliate, revenge; sat- isfy, settle with, reward, re- turn, repay, remunerate, rec- ompense, compensate, recipro- cate. ANT. Absolve, acquit, for- give, excuse, neglect, pardon, slight, forget, overlook, pass over. Research. Inquiry, scrutiny, ex- amination, experimentation, ex- ploration, discovery, investiga- tion, study, observation. ANT. Ignorance, oversight, inobservance ; shallowness, su- perficiality, sciolism. Reserve, n. Reservation, reten- tion, limitation, backwardness, coldness, shyness, coyness, mod- esty; taciturnity, restraint, re- pression, constraint. AXT. Profuseness, prodigal- ity, diffusion; affability, genial- ity, cordiality, abandonment, surrender, openness, frankness, transparency, indiscretion, vol- ubility. Resignation. Relinquishment, forsaking, abandonment, abdi- cation, renunciation, endur- ance; patience, long-suffering, forbearance; acquiescence, sub- mission. ANT. Maintenance, grasp, resistance, retention, rebellion, remonstrance, contention, reser- vation, holding, keeping, retain- ing, detention; murmuring, dis- satisfaction, discontent, protes- tation. Resolute. Determined, decided, fixed, steadfast, constant, per- severing, firm, bold, unshaken, steady ; undaunted, unflinch- ing, stout-hearted. ANT. Irresolute, timid, hesi- tating, doubtful, ivavering, vac- illating, capricious, variable, weak, undetermined, undecided. Resources. Expedient, means, resort, contrivance; supplies, devices, money, wealth, appli- ances, funds. ANT. Destitution, poverty, indigence, bareness, want, ex- haustion, inanition, lack, drain. [ 245 ] res] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [rev Respectable. Estimable, honor- able, worthy, considerable, rep- utable, honest; passable. ANT. Unworthy, bad, mean, dishonorable, dishonest, paltry, inconsiderable. Resplendent. Brilliant, splen- did, glorious, luminous, efful- gent, gorgeous, shining, glitter- ing, burnished. ANT. Dull, tarnished, luster- less, somber, dimmed, sullied. Best. Pause, peace, quiet, still- ness, tranquillity, intermission, cessation, ease, calm, peaceful- ness, calmness, quiescence, stop, repose, quietude, quietness, rec- reation, sleep, slumber. ANT. Agitation, commotion, disturbance, excitement, rest- lessness, strain, stir, tumult, work, unrest, toil, disquiet, mo- tion, movement, rush. Restive. Restless, restiff, fidgety, fretful, fractious, refractory, intractable, impatient, rebel- lious, skittish; resentful, recal- citrant, balky, vicious, unruly, stubborn, mulish, mutinous, ob- stinate. ANT. Docile, gentle, submis- sive, passive, quiet, tractable, yielding, obedient, manageable, peaceable. Restore. Return, replace, re- fund, repay, reinstate, rebuild, repair, revive, heal, cure, re- cover. ANT. Remove, steal, appro- priate, abstract, destroy, shat- ter, injure, dilapidate, impair; deprive; wound, harm. Restrain. Constrain, hold in, check, repress, circumscribe, confine, curb, hinder, hold, hold back, restrict, suppress, with- hold, bridle, abridge, keep back, keep down, keep in, keep under. ANT. Let loose, set free, re- lease, arouse, aid, emancipate, animate, incite, excite, encour- age, free, impel. Result. Consequence, issue, con- clusion, effect; end, event, ter- mination, product, outcome ; in- ference, deduction ; resolution, determination. ANT. Cause, beginning, com- mencement, rise, origin, ante- cedent, prognostic, initiation, premonition, indication. Retinue. Attendants, suite, fol- lowers, train, retainers, satel- lites, escort, cortege. ANT. Solitariness, non-atten- dance. Retirement. Privacy, solitude, loneliness, seclusion. ANT. Company, converse, so~ ciety, fellowship, companion- ship, association. Retribution. Requital, retalia- tion, payment, recompense; re- payment, compensation, reward, return ; penalty, punishment, visitation. ANT. Remission, reprieve; pardon, condonation, sparing. Retrospect. Review, survey, re- consideration, reexamination; recollection, reminiscence, mem- ory. ANT. Prospect, prophecy, an- ticipation, forecasting, prognos- tication, speculation. Return, v. Turn back, come back; reply, respond; answer; restore, recompense, remit, ren- der; reappear, recur; revert, retaliate. ANT. Depart, vanish, disap- pear, remove; retain, misappro- priate; withhold. Revelation. Disclosure, mani- festation, apocalypse. ANT. Concealment, shroud- ing, veiling, mystery, obscura- tion, cloud, cloudiness, hiding. Revenge. Retaliation, retribu- [ 246 ] WT] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [rip tion, vengeance, avenging, re- quital. ANT. Mercy, pardon, recon- ciliation, pity, compassion, ex- cuse, grace, forgiveness. Bevenue. Income ; taxes, excise, customs, duties, rents, receipts ; produce, return, wealth, pro- ceeds. ANT. Outgo, waste, expendi- ture, expense, deductions, im- poverishment. Beverse, n. Contrary, opposite, counterpart ; change, vicissi- tude; inversion, counter-posi- tion; derangement, alteration; rear, back; misfortune, defeat. ANT. Obverse, front; order, arrangement, version, position, location; continuance, perpet- uation, identity, stability, reg- ularity, uniformity. Bevive. Reanimate, reinvigor- ate; restore, raise, recover, re- new, recall ; awake, revivify, re- suscitate. ANT. Kill, destroy, extin- guish, discourage; decline, die, droop. Revolution. Lawlessness, in- surrection, revolt, riot, sedi- tion, anarchy, insubordination, rebellion, mutiny, confusion, disorder, tumult, disintegra- tion. ANT. Government, submis- sion, obedience, authority, con- trol, command, dominion, domi- nation, law, empire, rule, sov- ereignity, loyalty, supremacy, order. Bevolve. Roll, rotate, turn. ANT. Bind, grind, stand, slide, slip, stick, chafe. Steward, n. Recompense, com- pensation, remuneration, pay, requital, retribution, punish- ment. Rich. Wealthy, opulent, afflu- ent, supplied, abounding; abun- dant, copious, bountiful ; fertile, productive; valued, sumptuous, precious, costly; high-seasoned; luscious; vivid. ANT. Poor, indigent, needy, impoverished, destitute, impe- cunious, penniless; lacking, scanty, scarce, meager; barren, sterile; trivial, worthless, un- productive, fruitless, paltry, valueless; dull, tame, dry. Riches. Opulence, wealth, af- fluence, richness, plenty, abun- dance. ANT. Poverty, want, indi- gence, scarcity, need, lack, im- pecuniosity. Biddle. Conundrum, paradox, problem, puzzle, enigma. ANT. Axiom, answer, expla- nation, solution, proposition. Ridicule. Derision, raillery, banter, burlesque, irony, satire, mocking, sarcasm, gibe, jeer, sneer. ANT. Respect, homage, ven- eration, deference, honor. Bight, n. Claim, liberty, pre- rogative, license, privilege, ex- emption, franchise, immunity, duty, justice, uprightness, in- tegrity; title, ownership; in- terest; rectitude, correctness, power; propriety, fitness, suit- ableness. ANT. Wrong, falsehood, incor- rectness, perverseness ; liability, illegitimacy, non-legality, usur- pation, injustice, impropriety, unfitness, encroachment, force, violence. Righteous. Holy, uncorrupt, honest, equitable, rightful, up- right, virtuous, just, good, con- scientious. ANT. Unholy, corrupt, dis- honest, unjust, wicked, evil, un- scrupulous, vicious, false, un- principled, profligate. Ripe. Mature, complete, fin- [ 247 ] rls] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [nil ished; perfect, developed, full- grown ; fit, consummate ; pre- pared; full, seasoned, mellow. ANT. Raw, unripe, crude, fresK, green, unseasoned, un- prepared. 'Rise, v. Arise, issue, flow, pro- ceed, spring, ascend, emanate. ANT. Descend, drop, fall, go down, set, settle, sink, decline. Rival, v. Emulate, antagonize, compete with, contend, strive, oppose, equal. ANT. Surrender, yield, de- fer, retire. Bobber. Brigand, marauder, pi- rate, plunderer, thief, burglar, bandit, highwayman, footpad, despoiler, depredator, raider, buccaneer, forager, freebooter. Robust. Strong, lusty, sinewy, muscular, hale, hearty, vigor- ous, forceful; healthy, sturdy, sound; violent, rude, rough. ANT. Puny, weak, delicate, frail, sickly, emaciated, thin, slender, gentle, mild, consider- ate, tender. Romantic. Sentimental, fanci- ful, fantastic, fictitious, wild, extravagant, chimerical. ANT. Unromantic, truthful, unvarnished, unadorned, veri- fable, actual, real, realistic, reasonable. Root. Radix, radicle, stock, ori- gin, foundation, base, source, stem, parent, commencement, beginning, radical, bottom. ANT. Branch, ramification, product, issue, progeny, super- structure. Rough. Uneven, uncut, boister- ous, unpolished; coarse, disor- dered, shaggy, ragged; rude, uncivil, harsh; loud, offensive; tempestuous, stormy ; rugged, knotty, craggy, gruff; incom- plete ; uncourteous, churlish, blunt. ANT. Smooth, plain, level, polished, flat, glossy, sleek, soft, mild, quiet, refined, ten- der, gentle; balmy, zephyrlike. Routine. Practice, custom, pro- cedure, round, course, wont, order; gradation, rotation, se- quence, tenor, system, method; regulation. Royal. August, kinglike, ma- jestic, munificent, princely, re- gal, magnificent, kingly. ANT. Beggarly, contempt- ible, mean, poor, servile, slav- ish, vile. Rude. Rough, uneven, shapeless, unfashioned, rugged, uncouth, inelegant, rustic, vulgar, raw, clownish, unskilful, untaught, illiterate, ignorant, uncivil, impolite, saucy, impudent, in- solent, surly, uncivilized, bru- tal, barbarous, savage, violent, fierce, tumultuous, impetuous, boisterous, inclement, severe. ANT. Polite, urbane, accom- plished, cultivated, courteous, refined, civil, affable, courtly, gracious, elegant, polished, well- bred, obliging; modest, bash- ful; considerate, serene, placid, genial, calm; fashionable, mod- ern, civilized, modish. Rugged. Rough, uneven, rude, wrinkled, cragged, harsh, hard, crabbed; steep, precipitate; vio- lent, sour, surly, boisterous, tu- multuous, stormy, inclement, tempestuous ; austere, severe ; ruffled, blunt. ANT. Smooth, even, gentle, soft, low; pleasant, kindly; balmy, soothing; complaisant, mild. Rule. Regulation, law, precept, maxim, canon, order, method, direction, control, sway, em- pire; principle, practice; domi- nation, mastery, government ; test, criterion, formula. run] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [sal ANT. Exception, deviation, eccentricity, irregularity. Bun. Race, hasten, speed, pro- ceed, hurry, scamper, post; go, flow, glide, move, roll on; melt, fuse; pass, advance; course, fly, rush; hustle; pursue; cast, shape, mold; drive, force; indicate, mark out; incur, encounter, venture, risk ; conduct, manage, carry on; flee. ANT. Delay, walk, halt, stop, saunter, rest, linger, hesitate; harden; retrograde, slip. Hustle. Rural, sylvan, pastoral, country, countrified, bucolic, agricultural, verdant ; artless, inelegant, plain, rude, unpol- ished, untaught, unsophisti- cated; awkward, boorish, out- landish, clownish, coarse, hoy- denish, uncouth. ANT. City-like, urban; ao- complished, elegant, cultured, polite, urbane, polished, well- bred, refined. Ruthless. Cruel, pitiless, harsh, relentless, unsparing. ANT. Tender, gentle, pitiful, compassionate, lenient, regret* ful, long-suffering. s Sable. Dark, black, ebon, somber. ANT. Light, white, cheerful, bright, ivory. Sacrament. Eucharist, Lord's Supper, communion; ceremony, rite, service, solemnity, ordi- nance, observance. Sacred. Holy, divine, hallowed, consecrated, dedicated, devoted, religious, venerable, reverend. ANT. Secular, profane, com- mon, unconsecrated, human. Sacrifice, n. Offering, propitia- tion, expiation, thanksgiving ; destruction, immolation, devo- tion, surrender; oblation, atonement. ANT. Offense, transgression; retention, reservation; accep- tance. Sad. Sorrowml, mournful, de- jected, gloomy, depressed, se- date, cheerless, downcast, griev- ous; dull, grave, dark, somber; afflicted; calamitous; serious, staid; melancholy, Disconso- late, despondent, disastrous, de- plorable. ART. Cheerful, joyous, glad, mirthful, jubilant, jovial, light- hearted; exultant, gay, exhil- arated, happy, blithe. Sagacious. Sage, sensible, keen, discerning, clear-sighted, apt, acute, intelligent, sharp, wise, rational, shrewd, able, keen- sighted, keen-witted, judicious, perspicacious, quick-scented, sharp-witted. ANT. Obtuse, senseless, irra- tional, silly, stupid, simple, un- intelligent, undiscerning, dull, absurd, foolish, futile, sottish, ignorant. Sale. Bargain, barter, deal, ex- change, trade, change. Salient. Leaping, bounding, jumping; projecting; promi- nent, conspicuous, noticeable, significant; strategic. ANT. Retreating, retiring, low-lying; unimportant, incon- spicuous, unnoticeable, minor, inconsiderable, subordinate, in- significant. Salvation. Saving, preserva- tion, deliverance; redemption; rescue. [ 249 ] am] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS tsci ANT. Perdition, destruction, damnation, condemnation, loss. Sample. Specimen, example, il- lustration, case, instance, ex- emplification. ANT. Total, whole, excep- tion, aggregate; abnormality, monstrosity. Sanction. Authorization, au- thority, countenance ; ratifica- tion, confirmation, approba- tion; approval, support, seal, allowance. ANT. Discountenance, disal- lowance, unauthorization ; can- cellation, nullification; disap- proval, non-support. Sanguine. Blood-red, crimson; warm, ardent; hopeful, lively, animated, cheerful; confident, enthusiastic, buoyant; trustful. ANT. Pallid, cold, frigid; unresponsive, depressed, life- less, despondent, despairing, de- jected, anxious, suspicious, mis- giving, distrustful. Sanity. Saneness, soundness, ra- tionality; reasonableness, wis- dom; amenableness. ANT. Insanity, aberration, derangement, unsoundness, ir- rationality, madness, lunacy, alienation, dementia, folly. Sarcasm. Taunt, gibe; scorn, contempt, satire; irony, sneer, ridicule. ANT. Compliment, eulogy, praise, approbation, apprecia- tion, panegyric. Satisfy. Satiate, sate, compen- sate; cloy, surfeit, suffice, con- tent, glut, fill, requite; relieve, reassure, convince; please, rec- ompense, gratify, fulfil. ANT. Deprive, deny, starve, stint, refuse; annoy, tantalize; aggravate, tease; displease. Savage. Wild, uncultivated, un- tamed, uncivilized, rude, brut- ish, brutal, barbarous, cruel, in- human, fierce, pitiless, merci- less, atrocious, ferocious; mur- derous, violent. ANT. Tame, civilized, culti- vated, domesticated, tender, re- fined, polished, gentle, humane, considerate, pitiful, merciful, protective, generous, subdued, chivalrous, clement, self-con- trolled. Save. Preserve, rescue, deliver; lay up, reserve, keep; spare, prevent; protect; be economi- cal, hoard, husband; obviate, snatch, catch. ANT. Lose, destroy, aban- don, imperil, expose, endanger, risk, hazard; waste, lavish, spend, fling away. Say. Utter, express, tell, speak, declare; repeat, rehearse, re- cite; assert; mention, suggest; suppose; answer; respond, re- ply; state, pronounce; affirm, deny; allege. ANT. Silence, hush, whis- per, mumble; be taciturn; sup~ press, repress; mispronounce. Scarce. Rare, infrequent, defi- cient; uncommon; scant, spar- ing, meager, insufficient; un- usual, unique, singular, want- ing, few, precious. ANT. Plenty, abundant, fre- quent, plentiful, common, thick. Scheme, n. Plan, project, con- trivance, design, purpose, plot, device; system, outline; machi- nation, intrigue, stratagem, ca- bal, conspiracy; theory. ANT. Blunder, derangement, Disarrangement, bungle, botch. Scholar. Learner, pupil, student, savant, disciple. ANT. Dunce, fool, ignora- mus, illiterate person, idiot, idler. Science. Literature, art, knowl- edge; truth, facts; skill, ex- pertness ; comprehension ; in- 250 SCO] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [sel formation, investigation, ex- perimentation, learning, expe- rience. ANT. Ignorance, error, smat- tering, fallacy, sciolism; inex- perience, unfamiliarity, incom- prehension. Scorn, n. Disdain, derision, con- tumely, despite, slight, mock- ery, dishonor; contempt, disre- gard; sneer, opprobrium. ANT. Compliment, commen- dation, deference, approval, es- teem, respect, regard, approba- tion. Scruple, n. Unwillingness, hesi- tation, doubt; particle; qualm, reluctance, misgiving. ANT. Confidence, assurance, recklessness, heedlessness ; dar- ing, self-complacency. Scrupulous. Cautious, careful, conscientious, hesitating; exact, nice; questioning, unwilling, punctilious, precise; diffident, dubious. ANT. Reckless, confident, careless, unconscientious, self- complacent, heedless, unwary, incautious, daring. Scrutiny. Examination, inspec- tion, observation, search, sift- ing, exploration, inquisition, in- quiry. ANT. Oversight, misobserv- ance, disregard, slight, inatten- tion. Season. Time, period, term, in- terval, spell, while ; occasion, opportunity, timeliness, season- ableness. ANT. Contretemps, unsea- sonableness, untimeliness, un- suitableness. Seasonable. Opportune, suit- able, timely, fit, convenient, ap- propriate, normal; periodical; welcome. ANT. Inopportune, unsuit- able, unfit, untimely, inconveni- ent, inappropriate, unwelcome, unexpected, abnormal. Secure, a. Undisturbed, assured, heedless, inattentive; easy, un- anxious, trustful, insured; ob- tained, acquired ; fast, firm ; de- fended, guarded, protected, cer- tain, sheltered, safe. ANT. Disturbed, endangered, imperiled, insecure, hazardous; anxious, distrustful, suspicious, careful, precarious; loose, drift- ing, doubtful, dubious. Sedate. Settled, composed, calm, quiet, tranquil, still, serene, un- ruffled, undisturbed, contempla- tive, sober, serious; passive. ANT. Flighty, disturbed, un- easy, restless, excited, discom- posed, agitated, indiscreet; ac- tive, moving; frivolous. Sedition. Riot, rebellion, revolt, insurrection, mutiny; outbreak, uprising, secession, treason ; in- subordination ; tumult, tur- moil, anarchy. ANT. Peace, pacification, or- der, quiet, orderliness, obedi- ence, allegiance, fealty, union, patriotism, fidelity. See. Perceive, behold, descry, view; observe, discern, under- stand, comprehend ; watch, look after; interview, visit; associ- ate, meet; accompany, escort; attend, heed, be attentive ; gaze, glance at. ANT. Be blind; overlook, mistake; misunderstand, mis- comprehend; pass, ignore, neg- lect; disregard, misconceive. Seek. Search, try for, solicit, in- quire for, strive after, hunt, fol- low, trace, prosecute, attempt, endeavor, investigate. ANT. Shun, elude, ignore, neglect, disregard, avoid, re- linquish, drop, abandon, dis- card. Seldom. Rarely, not often, infre- ; 251 } sel] SYNONYMS A^JJ ANTONYMS [set quently; hardly ever, occasion- ally. ANT. Often, frequently, gen- erally, commonly, regularly, ha- bitually, invariably, uniformly, systematically. Selection. Choice, pick, prefer- ence, election, option. ANT. Repudiation, rejection, discarding, refusal; exclusion. Self-abnegation. Self-renunci- ation, self-sacrifice, self-control, self-devotion, self-immolation, self-denial. ANT. Self-indulgence, self- gratification, self-will, selfish- ness, self-seeking. Selfish.. Self-seeking, mean, un- generous, narrow, illiberal, mer- cenary, greedy, egoistical, self- indulgent. ANT. Generous, liberal, al- truistic, philanthropic, benefi- cent, self-denying, public-spir- ited, magnanimous, unselfish, considerate. Send. Sling, throw, fling, hurl, lance, launch, propel, project, cast, dart, despatch, discharge, drive, emit; forward, trans- mit, impel, dismiss, delegate, depute. ANT. Receive, keep, retain, hold; bring, carry, hand, get, give, convey. Sensation. Emotion, sense, feel- ing, perception. ANT. Apathy, non-sensibil- ity, non-perception, indiffer- ence. Sense. Understanding, reason; cognition, apprehension; de- duction; perception, feeling; recognition, discernment ; rea- soning; opinion, judgment, no- tion, meaning, import, signifi- cation. ANT. Nonsense, misunder- standing; stupidity, non-appre- hension; non-comprehension; stolidity, inertness, non-observ- ance; fancy, folly, unsoundness. Sensibility. Feeling, sensitive- ness, susceptibility, impressi- bility. ANT. Coldness, deadness, un- consciousness, hardness, numb- ness, insensibility. Sentiment. Thought, opinion, notion, sensibility, feeling; sus- ceptibility, impressibility, im- pression, conviction; emotion; maxim, saying, toast. ANT. Nonsense, conjecture, vacuity; assumption, prejudice, preconception. Separate, v. Disunite, divide, sever; come between, part; dis- join, divorce; disengage, de- tach; sunder; withdraw, elim- inate, remove, segregate. ANT. Unite, consolidate, in- tegrate, connect, join, attach, link, weld, engage, wed; gather, convene, collect. Sequence. Succession, follow- ing, consequence, arrangement, order; series, progression, con- tinuity. ANT. Precedence, introduc- tion, priority; disorder, diseon- nection; intermission, irregu- larity. Serious. Sober, earnest, momen- tous, grave ; thoughtful, sedate, solemn ; important, weighty ; dangerous. ANT. Gay, thoughtless, friv- olous, laughing, joking, jocose, careless, trifling, trivial, unim- portant, light, insignificant, Serve. Obey, minister to, sub- serve, promote, aid, help, abet, assist, benefit, succor. ANT. Command, order, man- age; obstruct, counteract, re- tard, defeat, injure, thwart, op- pose. Set. Put, seat, place, fix; affix, attach ; fasten, make stable or [ 252 ] Mt] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [sha firm; obstruct, embarrass; de- termine upon, fix upon; plant; frame; stiffen, solidify; adjust, regulate, adapt; prepare; re- place; spread; stud, variegate; value at, rate at; establish, furnish, prescribe, strengthen, tabilitate, ground, confirm, de- termine, appoint, assign. ANT. Remove, uproot, trans- fer, eradicate, transplant, un- settle, weaken, soften, destroy, , demolish; disperse, discard; de- nude, disarrange, divest, strip; misvalue, under- or over-rate; abolish, frustrate. Settle. Regulate, arrange, com- pose, decide; establish; still, calm; clear; restore; depress, sink, lower, make compact, har- den; determine, adjust, make up, pacify; liquidate, balance; colonize, people. ANT. Disturb, confuse, de- range; agitate, unsettle, excite, uproot, overturn; obstruct; ele- vate, upheave, break up; dis- compose, disorder, rise, as- cend, move; misregulate, aggra- vate. Severe. Stern, strict, austere, hard, relentless, rigorous, un- relenting, inexorable, harsh, inflexible, rigid, morose, stiff, uncompromising, unmitigated, unyielding; critical, grave, se- rious. ANT. Lenient, clement, un- exacting, mild, easy, gay, cheer- ful, joyous; loose, slack, inex- act, indulgent, uncritical, mod- erate, kind, considerate. Shade. Shadow; darkness, ob- scurity; screen, shelter, protec- tion; body, spirit, ghost; um- brage, adumbration ; degree, minuteness; seclusion. ANT. Light, illumination, sunshine, brightness, daylight; glare, radiance, exposure; pub- licity; quantity, amount; do- fenselessness. Shake. Agitate, fluctuate, flut- ter, oscillate, quake, quiver, quaver, rock, shiver, shudder, totter, tremble, waver, wave, sway, swing, vibrate, thrill, jar. ANT. Fasten, fix, set, secure, settle, confirm. Shame. Disgrace, reproach, dis- honor, ignominy; degradation, contempt, infamy; diffidence, modesty, discredit; humilia- tion, abashment; decency, de- corum. ANT. Fame, honor, glory t approval, renown, credit; im pudence, shamelessness, inde- cency, immodesty, indecorum, impropriety. Shape. Appearance, figure, as- pect, form, guise; outline; em- bodiment ; character, fashion, mold, pattern, cast, model. ANT. Imitation, reproduc- tion, copy; deformity, disfig- urement. Sharp. Quick, sagacious, witty, discerning, shrewd, ingenious, sour, acid, tart, acrid, biting, poignant, acrimonious, sarcas- tic, bitter, painful, afflictive, violent, fierce, ardent, fiery; acute, keen, trenchant, astute, subtle, penetrating, discrimi- nating, inventive, piquant; se- vere, vigilant, attentive; caus- tic, cutting; eager, hungry; thin, emaciated; shrill, high; exacting, close. ANT. Dull, blunt, slow, ob- tuse, undiscerning, unresource- ful, sweet, honeyed, cloying, saccharine, mellow; soft, gen- tle, mild, tender, considerate, kindly, lenient, clement; unin- ventive, indifferent, sluggish, inactive, tame, characterless, spiritless, careless, inattentive; thick; generous, unexacting. she] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [sil Shelter. Defend, guard, harbor, protect, shield, screen, ward, cover, conceal. ANT. Expose, betray, im- peril, endanger, exhibit, lay bare, discover, attack. Short. Brief, contracted, inade- quate, limited, scanty; insuffi- cient, incomplete, imperfect ; abrupt, petulant, quick; near, direct, straight; succinct, con- cise, condensed, compendious ; terse, pithy, laconic, curt, sen- tentious; severe, uncivil; nar- row; destitute. ANT. Long, protracted, ex- tended, adequate, ample, suffi- cient, plentiful, abundant, copi- ous; perfect, complete; civil, suave, complaisant; circuitous, indirect; tedious, prolix, ver- bose, extended, wordy; broad; provided for. Show, v. Exhibit, present, dis- play; tell, reveal; direct, con- duct; clear, .prove, manifest, explain, evince; bestow, con- fer; appear, look, seem; dem- onstrate, unfold, inform, teach ; evidence. ANT. Conceal, hide, with- hold, suppress, obscure, mys- ~.tify, cloak, wrap; contradict, deny, refute, disprove, falsify; misinterpret. Shrewd. Keen, critical, subtle, arch, astute, sagacious, acute, discerning, penetrating; mali- cious, evil, vicious ; wily, artful, cunning; clever, sharp, able; discriminating, intelligent. ANT. Stolid, stupid, unin- telligent, dull, thick, unsaga- dous, undiscerning, undiscrim- inating ; plain, blank, blunt, frank; kindly, sincere, benevo- lent; fair, open. Sick. Diseased, ill, disordered, distempered, indisposed, weak, ailing, feeble, morbid; imper- fect, impaired, weakened, cor- rupted; disgusted, surfeited. ANT. Healthy, whole, well, sound, strong, robust, salubri- ous, vigorous, hale, wholesome, salutary. Side. Margin, edge, verge, bor- der, boundary; party, sect, fac- tion, interest, cause, policy, be- half; face, aspect, plane; slope, declivity; half. ANT. Center, interior, body, heart, core; opposition, seces- sion, neutrality. Sight. Vision, show, represen- tation, exhibition; faculty of seeing, view; visibility, spec- tacle; inspection, examination; opinion, judgment; perception, ken, cognizance; contemplation, survey; insight; appearance. ANT. Blindness, non-visibil- ity, obscuration; non-appear- ance; oversight, neglect; disap- pearance; vanishing; impres- sion, prejudice. Sign. Mark, manifestation, in- dication, presage, symbol, type, token, emblem, note, omen, sig- nal, prognostic, symptom. Significant. Expressive, sugges- tive, important; weighty, mo- mentous; manifest, intimating, declarative, betokening, imply- ing, meaning, denoting; tell- ing, speaking; forcible; con- spicuous. ANT. Insignificant, mean- ingless, inconspicuous, mute, inexpressive, expressionless, un- suggestive. Silence. Stillness, hush, restful- ness, quiet, muteness, noiseless- ness, calm, peace, tranquillity; dumbness, taciturnity; obscur- ity, secrecy, oblivion. ANT. Noise, sound, tumult* clamor, roar, storm, din, un~ rest, babel, commotion, rever- beration, resonance, agitation, [ 254 ] aim] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [la clatter; talkativeness, loquac- ity, garrulity; publicity, fame, rumor, repute, celebrity. Similar. Corresponding, like, resembling, uniform, homoge- neous; congruous, harmonious. ANT. Dissimilar, unlike, dif- ferent, alien, discordant, heter- ogeneous, incongruous. Simple. Silly; single, uncom- bined; plain, unadorned; mere; sincere, artless, unaffected, nat- ural ; direct, clear, perspicuous ; credulous, foolish; humble, un- distinguished, lowly; innocent; elementary. ANT. Complex, double, com- pound, combined, mixed; or- nate, adorned; blended, fused, multiform; artful, affected, ar- tificial; indirect, complicated, circuitous, skeptic, pragmatic; proud, haughty, distinguished, celebrated; various, organized, elaborate; designing, insincere, double-minded; developed, per- fect. Sin. Evil, crime, guilt, offense, wickedness, fault, vice, crimi- nality, misdeed; viciousness, ungodliness, wrong, wrong-do- ing, unrighteousness, iniquity, transgression, immorality, de- pravity, delinquency. ANT. Virtue, godliness, rec- titude, uprightness, sinlessness, excellence, blamelessness, good- ness, holiness, innocence, moral- ity, integrity, purity, righteous- ness, right. Sing. Chant, carol, chirp, hum, warble, chirrup. Singular. Unexampled, eminent, unprecedented, extraordinary, remarkable, uncommon, rare, unusual, peculiar, strange, odd, eccentric, fantastic; individual, unique; conspicuous, consum- mate, exceptional, particular; curious, queer. ANT. Common, everyday, or- dinary, commonplace, general, universal, usual, regular, cus- tomary, frequent, numerous; unnoticeable, normal, typical, inconspicuous, humdrum. Sink. Subside, drop, droop, de- cay, lower, lessen; submerge, immerse, engulf; depress, de- grade, debase, diminish; fall, descend; decline, dwindle, de- crease; weary, flag, abate; re- duce; drown; attenuate. ANT. Rise, ascend, mount, increase, augment, aggrandize, swell; flourish, exalt, heighten, promote, enhance; encourage, perpetuate. Situation. Site, station, post, case, plight, state ; location, po- sition; place, office; condition; locality, seat, ground, spot ; cir- cumstance, predicament; cate- gory; employment; footing, as- pect; birth, standing. ANT. Absence, dislodgment, displacement, non-assignment. Skeptic. Agnostic, doubter, free- thinker, infidel, unbeliever, de- ist, atheist, disbeliever. ANT. Christian, believer. Sketch, n. Outline, picture, de- sign, drawing, draft; skeleton, plan, brief. Skilful. Expert, dexterous, apt, handy, adroit, clever, deft, pro- ficient, skilled, trained, accom- plished, happy, ingenious, prac- ticed; adept, masterly, cun- ning. ANT. Unskilled, clumsy, in~ expert, unskilful, unintelligent, awkward, incompetent, unpre- pared, untrained, unable, un- taught, bungling, helpless, mal- adroit, shiftless. Slander, v. Defame, disparage, depreciate, malign, asperse, ca- lumniate, libel, vilify, revile, traduce, decry, backbite. [ 255 ] Bla] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [sof ANT. Extol, eulogize, laud, praise, vindicate, defend. Slang. Vulgarity, cant, collo- quialism, vulgarism. ANT. Diction, language. Slender. Small, narrow, slim; weak, feeble, slight; moderate, trivial, inconsiderable, meager; spare, abstemious, frugal. ANT. Thick, stout, robust, broad, ample, deep, bulky, con- siderable, massive, weighty; gi- ant, colossal. Slippery. Smooth, glib; mu- table, uncertain, fickle, incon- stant; unstable, changeable; wanton, loose, unchaste; icy, glassy, insecure, perilous, un- safe; shifty, elusive; deceptive, evasive; unprincipled. ANT. Rough, firm, safe, se- cure, stable; constant, certain, dependable, upright, sincere, outright, trustworthy, sound. Slow. Deliberate, dilatory, lin- gering, gradual, moderate, pro- crastinating, tardy; inert, inac- tive, sluggish, drowsy, dull, de- laying, dawdling. ANT. Nimble, active, brisk, alert, lively, prompt, speedy, quick, spry, swift, agile. Small. Little, diminutive, in- considerable; inconsequential, uninfluential, trivial, insignifi- cant; paltry, mean, incapable, unable; short; weak, slender, gentle, low; tiny, puny; unim- portant ; scanty, moderate ; sor- did, selfish ; inferior, unintellec- tual, ungifted, unintelligent. ANT. Large, great, big, ex- tensive, enormous, bulky, mas- sive, weighty, ample, spacious, broad, strong, stout, generous, liberal, munificent; important, significant, notable, influential, distinguished, gifted, magnani- mous, intelligent, intellectual, superior, competent. Smart. Acute, quick, lively, brisk, clever, dashy, showy; pungent, pricking ; keen, severe, poignant; vigorous, sharp; ac- tive, shrewd; efficient, witty; pretentious, spruce; fresh. ANT. Dull, heavy, blunt, ob- tuse, dense, stupid; aching; slow, inactive, sluggish, ineffi- cient, shabby, dowdy, boorish, clownish. Sneer. Jeer, mock, gibe, taunt, fling, scoff. ANT. Smile, laugh; flatter, compliment; cheer. Sober. Abstinent, abstemious, moderate, regular; steady, col- lected, quiet, cool, staid, som- ber; temperate; dispassionate, self-controlled, calm, self-pos- sessed, solemn, sedate. ANT. Intemperate, intoxi- cated, drunk, impassioned, ex- cited, heated, furious, passion- ate; unreasonable, immoderate, uncontrolled, agitated, extrava- gant; erratic, eccentric. Socialism. Communism, collec- tivism, fabianism. Society. Companionship, fellow- ship, company ; participation, connection ; association, part- nership ; community, sodality, communion, intercourse. ANT. Solitude, solitariness, privacy, separation, segrega- tion; individuality, personal- ity; disconnection, dissociation, unsociabiJiti/. Soft. Yielding, impressible, mal- leable; smooth, delicate; agree- able, gentle, flowing; flexible; mild, tender, conciliatory, kind; effeminate, weak; easy; quiet, peaceful, tranquil. ANT. Hard, unyielding, im- pervious, tough, stubborn, im- permeable; non-resilient; dis- agreeable, harsh, brush, gruff, unkind; strong, manly ; virile; [ 256 ] sol] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [80V rough, coarse, rigid, rigorous, abrupt ; resolute, determined. Solemnity. Gravity, formality, ritual, ceremonial, sobriety, se- riousness, reverence, devotion; celebration, observance ; sanc- tity, awfulness, sacredness; im- pressiveness. ANT. Levity, triviality, gai- ety, vulgarity ; secularity, dese- cration, profanity; meaning, unimpressiveness, unimposing- ness; simplicity. Solid. Hard, sound, real, valid, weighty, profound ; compact, resistant, dense ; heavy ; strong, firm, stable; substantial; im- penetrable; cubic. ANT. Hollow, yielding, soft, resilient, malleable, fluid, flex- ible, impressible, liquid; brittle, frail; light, trifling, frivolous; invalid, weak, fallacious, un- sound. Solitude. Loneliness, solitariness, loneness, recluseness, retired- ness ; withdrawal, remoteness, destitution, absence; seclusion, retirement; desertion, retreat, wilderness, desert, privacy, iso- lation. ANT. Populousness, society, popularity, throng, crowd, in- tercourse, meeting, convening, populace, multitude. Solution. Disruption, separa- tion, breach ; disentanglement, explanation, clearing up; reso- lution, disintegration; release, discharge; solvency; disconnec- tion, discontinuance; key, an- swer, elucidation. ANT. Union, amalgamation, conjunction, connection, combi- nation, entanglement, complica- tion ; continuity; integration; obscurity, confusion, perplexity, mystification. Soothe. Soften, allay, compose, tranquilize, pacify; humor, flat- ter, please; assuage, calm, mol- lify, comfort; lull; mitigate, re- lieve. ANT. Rouse, excite, disturb, disquiet; aggravate, displease, scold, irritate, exasperate, an- noy, infuriate; dissatisfy. Sordid. Vile, base, gross; mean, avaricious, covetous, niggardly; greedy; low, degraded; stingy, close, ungenerous, penurious ; illiberal. ANT. Pure, noble, honorable, refined; generous, unselfish, lib- eral, broad, munificent, u-ncov- etous; prodigal, profuse, lav- ish; high-minded. Soul. Spirit, life, courage, fire, ardor ; vitality, animus ; leader, inspirer; passion, fervor, affec- tion; person; reason, intellect, emotions; ghost, specter. ANT. Lifelessness, soulless- ness; body; coldness, spiritless- ness; irrationality, unintelleo- tuality. Sound, n. Noise, note, tone, re- port; impulse, vibration. ANT. Silence; taciturnity; stillness, hush, lull, muteness. Sound, a. Whole, unbroken, un- harmed, free, perfect, healthy; firm, strong, solid, safe; cor- rect, true, orthodox; deep, pro- found, undisturbed; right; le- gal, valid, undefective; entire, thorough, substantial, irrefu- table. ANT. Unsound, broken, par- tial, harmed; imperfect, soft, diseased; weak, mellow, unsafe; incorrect, untrue, heterodox; light, trivial, fragile; illegal, illegitimate, invalid, defective; insubstantial, fallacious, hol- loio, unfounded. Sovereign, n. King, prince, po- tentate, monarch, emperor ; ruler. ANT. Subject, peasant, serf. [ 257 ] sov] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [spr Sovereign, a. Supreme, para- mount, superior, chief; indepen- dent, unlimited, absolute; con- trolling, efficacious ; princely, royal; primary, principal, re- gal, imperial; predominant. ANT. Inferior, subordinate, subservient, ministerial, secon- dary, subject; popular, menial; inefficient, une/ficacious, uncer- tain, weak. Space. Extension, room; inter- val, duration, time; capacity, distance, measure, quantity ; boundlessness, illimitableness ; immeasurableness, immensity. ANT. Confinement, proxim- ity, limitation, restriction, con- tiguity, continuity. Spare, a. Scanty, sparing, fru- gal, wanting, lacking, parsi- monious, needed, chary; su- perfluous; lean, meager, thin, gaunt. ANT. Ample, abundant, pro- fuse, plentiful, liberal, bounti- ful, unsparing, unstinted, unre- stricted, generous; plump, fat, corpulent, portly. Sparse. Scattered, sprinkled, in- frequent, thin, scanty, meager, few. ANT. Dense, thick, plentiful, many, populous, crowded, nu- merous, frequent, multitudi- nous. Speak. Say, talk, tell, utter, dis- course, articulate, converse, ex- press, chat, chatter, enunciate, pronounce; announce, declaim, declare, deliver. ANT. Be mute or dumb; keep silence, be taciturn; sup- press; recall. Speculation. Venture ; theory, view, notion, conjecture; con- sideration, meditation, contem- plation, thought, weighing; hy- pothesis, scheme. ANT. Certainty, fact, ver- ity, proof, realization, verifica- tion. Speech. Address, discourse, lan- guage, speaking, talk, oration, utterance, sermon, harangue, dissertation, oratory, disquisi- tion. ANT. Hush, silence, stillness, taciturnity, speechlessness. Spirit. Life, soul; ghost, spec- ter; fairy, sprite; energy, vi- vacity, ardor, courage, enthusi- asm; intellectuality; meaning, intent; vapor; distilled liquid; air, breath ; intelligence, imma- teriality, essence, disembodi- ment, apparition ; activity, ear- nestness, zeal; temper, disposi- tion; principle, motive. ANT. Substance, body, cor~ poreity, flesh, frame, material- ity, embodiment, organization; spiritlessness, timidity, lifeless- ness, soullessness, deadness, tor- por, dejection, slowness. Spiritual. Immaterial, incorpo- real, mental, intellectual; holy, divine, heavenly-minded; eccle- siastical, sacred; moral; reli- gious, ethical. ANT. Carnal, fleshly, mate- rial, sensuous; gross; unspirit- ual. Splendid. Shining, showy, mag- nificent, sumptuous, pompous; illustrious, brilliant, famous; gorgeous, grand, glorious; im- posing; superb, heroic, noble. ANT. Dull, tame, obscure, tarnished, tawdry, somber, beg- garly, gloomy, poor, ordinary, ineffective, inglorious, insignifi- cant, mean, low. Spontaneous. Free, intentional, voluntary, willing, unbidden, impulsive, automatic, instinc- tive, deliberate. ANT. Forced, compelled, co- erced, unwilling, reluctant. Spread, v. Open, unfurl, dis- [ 258 spr] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [ste perse, distribute, scatter, circu- late, disseminate, dispense; ex- tend, stretch, expand, amplify; divulge, propagate, publish, dif- fuse. ANT. Collect, condense, con- tract, furl, gather, close, shut; confine, suppress, restrict, re- call, conceal, hush, localize. Spring, v. Leap, bound, jump; shoot, fly, dart, start; emerge; bend, warp ; proceed, issue, re- sult; burst, emanate, flow; rise, originate, germinate. ANT. Settle, alight, arrive, land, drop; end, terminate, de- bouch, finish, eventuate. Spy. Scout, emissary, detective. Stable, a. Steady, abiding, firm, strong, durable; fixed, estab- lished; constant, resolute, un- wavering; secure, stanch, per- manent; solid, lasting, perpet- ual; immobile, rigid, unmov- able. ANT. Vacillating, wavering, unsteady, toppling, weak, tot- tering, infirm, insecure, precari- ous, frail, unstable; transient, ephemeral, evanescent, vanish- ing, non-durable. Stain, v. Blot, spot, sully, tar- nish, tinge, tint, color, discolor, disgrace, dishonor, dye, soil. ANT. Preserve inviolate or unspotted. Stand, v. Rest, continue upright or erect, be situated or located ; cease, stop, pause, halt; en- dure, last; maintain, be fixed or steady; be, consist; agree, accord; endure, sustain, bear; withstand; submit to. ANT. Advance, move, pro- ceed, progress; fail, fall, die, depart, run, yield, succumb, drop; give up, surrender; re- taliate, avenge, resent. Standard, n. Flag, colors, ban- ner, ensign; criterion, test; support, frame; model, type, norm; gage, measure, scale; upright; exemplar. ANT. Misrule, mismeasure- ment, misadjustment, misfit, non-criterion. State, v. Declare, tell, assert, affirm, asseverate, allege, tes- tify, assure, swear, set forth, protest, predicate, pronounce, specify, propound, maintain, inform, express, depose, claim, avow, avouch, aver, certify. ANT. Deny, contradict, con- trovert, disprove, refute, re- pudiate, waive, contravene, dispute, gainsay, oppose, re- tract. Station. Depot; place, spot, po- sition, stand; office, sphere; state, rank, condition, occupa- tion, business. ANT. Removal, departure; dislodgment, ejection, displace- ment; locomotion. Stay, v. Stop; prop, hold up, support, sustain; hold, re- strain; hold back, hinder, de- lay ; check ; fasten, secure ; con- tinue, abide, remain; dwell, tarry, linger, wait; forbear; rest, depend, rely. ANT. Loose, liberate, free; fail, let fall; expedite, speed, accelerate; proceed, advance, progress, go on; move, depart; oppress, burden ; overthrow. Steadfast. Established, firm ; constant, resolute ; grounded, rooted, placed; resolved, un- wavering, stanch. ANT. Unsteady, unattached; vacillating, icavering, weak, in- secure, irresolute, inconstant, unreliable. Steep. Sharp, sheer, high, pre- cipitous, abrupt. ANT. Gradual, level, slight, fiat, easy, gentle, horizontal, low. [ 259 ] sti] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [str Stiff. Rigid, inflexible, strong, obstinate, pertinacious, rigor- ous, constrained, affected; un- bending, unpliant; starched; formal, ceremonious, difficult, punctilious, stately; austere, peremptory, inexorable, un- compromising. ANT. Flexible, pliant, un- affected, amenable, easy, yield- ing, affable, genial, unceremoni- ous, informal; pliable, malle- able; considerate, compromis- ing. Still. Noiseless; inert, stag- nant, serene; motionless, rest- ful, quiet; silent, calm, sound- less, low; hushed, mute, placid, quiescent ; stationary ; gentle, soft, mild, pacific, peaceful. ANT. Disturbed, agitated, moved, restless; noisy, moving, loud, resonant, turbulent; un- quiet, rough, harsh. Stop. Suppress, discontinue, de- lay, interrupt; close, obstruct; arrest, impede; restrain, hin- der, repress; cease, halt, stay, tarry; bar, seal; suspend, end, terminate. ANT. Assist, advance, con- tinue, expedite, speed, hasten, promote; clear, open; improve, push, benefit; progress; facili- tate; initiate, commence, be- gin. Storm. Agitation, disturbance, tempest. ANT. Calm, hush, peace, se- renity, stillness, tranquillity, fair weather. Story. Narrative, legend, anec- dote, account, tale, record, re- cital, incident, myth, narration, novel, relation. ANT. Annals, chronicle, bi- ography, history, memoir. Stout. Corpulent; portly; vig- orous, strong, lusty, robust; firm, resolute, bold; tough; large, bulky; brawny; valiant^ courageous, redoubtable. ANT. Thin, slender, weak 9 lean, frail, feeble, attenuate^ emaciated; timid, irresolute, cowardly. Strange. Outlandish, wonder- ful, astonishing, marvelous, un- common, irregular, queer, odd, eccentric; foreign, new, novel, unusual; reserved, distant; un- familiar, unaccustomed, inex- perienced. ANT. Familiar, usual, com- mon, general, universal, accus- tomed, ordinary, home, domes- tic, regular, customary, habit- ual, commonplace. Strength. Robustness, tough- ness, hardness, stoutness, spirit, lustiness, puissance, authority; force, vigor, power; endurance, resistance; security, validity; firmness; intensity; virtue; en- ergy, nerve, sinew, fiber; soundness. ANT. Weakness, thinness, frailty, softness, delicacy; im- becility, feebleness; spiritless- ness, impotence, inability; in- security, invalidity; waver- ing. Strenuous. Eager, pressing, ur- gent; zealous, ardent, earnest; bold, intrepid ; strong, deter- mined, resolute; vigorous, en- ergetic, vehement, forceful. ANT. Weak, irresolute, vac- illating, wavering, enervated, undetermined. Strong-. Powerful, cogent, mus- cular; robust, lusty, sinewy, hale, hearty, vigorous, force- ful: enduring, resistant; vio- lent, forcible; ardent, zealous, vehement, earnest, solid, nour- ishing; firm; capable, potent, effective, influential, sound ; pungent; hardy, tenacious. ANT. Weak, feeble, infirm, [ 260 til] SYNONYMS AJNJD ANTON 1' MS [sub sickly, exhausted, debilitated, wanting, pliant, frail, soft; low, faint; spiritless, foolish; wavering, impotent, powerless, defenseless, insecure, delicate; ^inefficacious, unconvincing, un- satisfactory, unavailing, flac- cid, nerveless. Stubborn. Obstinate, inflexible, obdurate, headstrong, harsh, in- tractable, firm, contumacious, heady; unbending, unyielding, persistent, refractory. ANT. Yielding, pliant, mild, gentle, docile, tractable, man- ageable, flexible, pliable; vacil- lating, wavering, irresolute, undecided. Studious. Contemplative, ob- servant ; sedulous, earnest, dili- gent; studied; absorbed, medi- tative, thoughtful, attentive, pondering, devoted, musing, cogitative; careful, literary, re- flective, assiduous. ANT. Illiterate, unliterary, idle, indulgent, careless, inat- tentive, thoughtless, negligent, regardless, indifferent. Study, n. Application, learning, acquisition, meditation, con- templation ; diligence, consid- eration, thought, research, en- deavor, knowledge, purpose, in- tention, attention, concentra- tion. ANT. Idleness, dawdling, il- literacy, ease, indifference, in- diligence, negligence, careless- ness, unstudiousness, thought- lessness. Stupid. Simple, insensible, sot- tish, sluggish, senseless, dolt- ish, heavy, dull ; stolid, insen- sate, obtuse, prosy. ANT. Quick, bright, sharp, intelligent, responsive, clever, . sensible, eager, animated, pen- etrating. Stupidity. Slowness, dulness, obtusenesa, insensibility, slug- gishness, stupor, apathy. ANT. Intelligence, anima- tion, brilliancy, acuteness, sen- sibility, cleverness, sense, sa- gacity, quickness, readiness, alertness, keenness. Stupor. Apathy, awoon, torpor, lethargy, coma, fainting, un- consciousness, stupefaction, as- phyxia, swooning, insensibility, syncope. Sublime. Exalted, lofty, noble, majestic, grand, stately, mag- nificent, dignified, elevated, au- gust, pompous, high, eminent, glorious. ANT. Low, ignoble, debased, degraded, inglorious, ordinary, mean, undignified, inconspicu- ous, unimposing, ridiculous. Submissive. Obedient, compli- ant, yielding, obsequious, sub- servient, humble, modest, pas- sive, docile, acquiescent. ANT. Disobedient, haughty, proud, arrogant, unyielding, conceited, active, rebellious, re- luctant, defiant, refractory, re- sistant. Subsidy. Aid, allowance, gift, bounty, reward, tribute, sup- port, subvention, pension, bo- nus, premium, grant, indem- nity. Substantial. Real, solid, true, existing, essential ; corporeal, material; strong, stout, re- sourceful, massive, tangible, bulky; sensuous. ANT. Imaginary, unreal, in- substantial, fictitious, supposi- titious, immaterial, weak, chi- merical, visionary, spiritual, disembodied, ghostly. Subtle. Artful, crafty, cunning, shrewd, sly, wily ; astute, guile- ful, discriminating, insinuat- ing, sophistical. ANT. Frank, honest, open, [ 261 ] sub] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [sup sincere, artless, undiscriminat- ing, undiscerning, simple, di- rect, blunt, unsophisticated. Subvert. Destroy, ruin, sup- plant, suppress, supersede, ex- tinguish, overthrow, overturn. ANT. Conserve, preserve, up- hold, sustain, keep, perpetuate. Succeed. Follow, pursue; en- sue, result, be subsequent; descend, devolve; gain, acquire, attain, obtain, achieve, accom- plish ; supervene ; nourish, pros- per, thrive. ANT. Precede, anticipate, an- tecede; fail, deteriorate, be lacking, lose, miss, disappoint, be deficient in; decline, wane, decay. Succession. Succeeding, series, sequence, order; lineage, de- scent ; following, continuity, consecution, rotation, regular- ity. ANT. Antecedence, prece- dence, anticipation, forerun- ning, prevention; disorder, ir- regularity, non-sequence, inter- mission, gap, failure, inconsec- utiveness. Sudden. Unexpected, unusual, abrupt, unlocked for, hasty, unanticipated, unforeseen, un- provided for ; rash, quick, heed- less, reckless. ANT. Anticipated, foreseen, expected; slow, gradual, tran- sitional, moderate; wary, cau- tious, careful, provident. Suffer. Support, sustain, toler- ate, permit; allow, let, grant, consent to; endure, bear, sub- mit to, undergo, be affected by, experience. ANT. Resist, rebel, repel, withstand; forbid, disallow, re- fuse, reject, expel, repudiate; fight, antagonize, challenge. Sufficient. Competent, satis- factory, full, ample; equal, ad- equate, enough; qualified, ca- pable, responsible; efficient; adapted, fitted. ANT. Inadequte, incompe- tent, unsatisfactory, lacking, wanting, unequal, unfit, inca- pable, unqualified, insufficient, unsuited, meager, short, defi- cient, scanty. Suggestion. Hint, innuendo, intimation, insinuation, impli- cation. Suitable. Proper, competent, correspondent, consonant, com- patible, congruous, consistent; fitting, accordant, becoming, adapted; seemly, appropriate, agreeable, convenient; harmo- nious, uniform; homogeneous. ANT. Improper, divergent, incompetent, incompatible, dis- sonant, incongruous, inconsis- tent, unfit, discordant, unbe- coming; unseemly, inappropri- ate, inconvenient; unharmoni- ous, different, heterogeneous. Sum. Aggregate, quantity, mag- nitude, amount ; compendium, substance, gist; height, com- pletion; total, whole, compu- tation; example, problem; col- lection; drift, bearing. ANT. Part, portion, half, fraction, item, particular; in- completeness, imperfection, dis- crepancy; article, detail, frag- ment, component, constituent, element. Superb. Grand, magnificent, au- gust, stately; rich, elegant; showy, excellent; princely, gor- geous, splendid; proud. ANT. Mean, shabby, poor, undignified, dingy; meager; tawdry, impoverished; ordi- nary, common; humble, plain, unimposing. Superior. Elevated, higher, up- per; surpassing, greater; pre- eminent, excellent, ascendent, [ 262 sup] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [swe predominant, prevalent, advan- tageous, beneficial. ANT. Inferior, lower, worse, deeper, meaner, subordinate, lesser, mediocre, ordinary, av- erage, common, unremarkable, inconspicuous, detrimental, dis- advantageous; declining, dete- riorating. Supernatural. Miraculous, pre- ternatural, superhuman. ANT. Common, natural, or- dinary, commonplace, every- day, usual. Supple. Pliant, flexible, bend- ing; fawning, soft; yielding, compliant, submissive; flatter- ing, obsequious, subservient, servile, cringing, adulatory; lithe, limber, elastic. ANT. Firm, stiff, unyield- ing, obstinate, infleorible, hard, dominant, domineering; abu- sive, scolding, tyrannous; un- bending, stubborn, independent, self-assertive, supercilious, ar- rogant, haughty. Support. Maintain, sustain, up- hold, cherish, keep, bear, prop, carry, tolerate, hold up, keep up. ANT. Demolish, abandon, betray, destroy, drop, desert, wreck, break down, cast down, overthrow, let go, throw down. Suppose. Deem, guess, imag- ine, think, conjecture, surmise. ANT. Conclude, ascertain, discover, prove, know, be sure. Suppress. Repress, subdue, re- strain, overthrow, quell, over- whelm, conceal, stifle, smother, stop ; overpower, extinguish, destroy. ANT. Excite, fan, increase, augment, strengthen, raise, ag- gravate; pubJish, promulgate, advertise, spread, disseminate; intensify. Sure. Unfailing, infallible, per- manent, steady, stable, strong, indisputable, confident, posi- tive, firm; certain, safe, secure, assured, believing, trusting, un- questioning; abiding, fast. ANT. Insecure, fallible, un- steady, inconstant, wavering, indeterminate, dubitable, un- certain, questionable, imperma- nent, doubtful, hesitating, dis~ trustful, precarious, disputable, loose. Surrender. Abandon, give over, relinquish, resign, waive, yield, alienate, capitulate, cede, let go, sacrifice, give one's self up. ANT. Resist, withstand, op- pose, thwart, baffle; die. Suspense. Uncertainty, expecta- tion, apprehension, anxiety, in- determination, indecision ; so- licitude, intermission, protrac- tion, abeyance, doubt; pause, stop. ANT. Decision, settlement, determination, finality, execu- tion; achievement, termination, accomplishment, end; unin- terruption, continuance, con- tinuity, regularity, sequence. Sustenance. Subsistence, food, provision, maintenance, sup- port; supplies, aliment, nutri- ment, nourishment; livelihood, living, nutrition, sustenta- tion. ANT. Starvation, loant, in- digence, poverty, hunger, lack, thirst, inanition, exhaustion; non-subsistence, non-support. Sweet. Sugary, saccharine, dul- cet, luscious; agreeable, pleas- ing, fragrant, soft, melodious ; beautiful, mild, fair; fresh; amiable, winning: wholesome. ANT. Sour, bitter, sharp, add; discordant, inharmoni- ous, dissonant: disagreeable, displeasing; fetid, malodorous; plain, homely; stale, unwhole- swi] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [tas some, spoiled; offensive, repul- sive, unlovely. Swift. Quick, fleet, speedy, ex- peditious, rapid, prompt; ac- celerated, nimble, alert, ready, headlong, eager, fast. ANT. Slow, tardy, delaying, late, unready, laggard, delib- erate, sedate, reluctant, linger- ing, lazy, loitering, inactive, sluggish, inexpeditious. Symmetry. Proportion, grace, conformity, uniformity, simi- larity, regularity, shapeliness, harmony, agreement; comeli- ness. ANT. Disproportion, dishar- mony, incongruity, irregular- ity, disagreement, disparity, shapelessness; interdisparity. Sympathy. Pity, compassion, commiseration, tenderness, con- dolence; fellow-feeling; agree- ment, conformity, reciprocity; congeniality. ANT. Antipathy, harshness, antagonism, unkindness, cold' ness, mercilessness, pitiless- ness. Synonymous. Similar, corre- spondent, like, identical, inter- changeable, alike, same, corre- sponding, synonymic, equiva- lent. ANT. Antonymic. System. Order, mode, method, regularity, rule, manner. ANT. Confusion, chaos, dis- order, derangement, irregular- ity, disarrangement. Tacit. Silent, implied, granted, unexpressed, understood, im- plicit. ANT. Mentioned, expressed, explicit, declared. Taciturn. Mute, silent, speech- less, reserved, close, dumb, un- communicntive, reticent. ANT. Communicative, free, garrulous, loquacious, talka- tive, unreserved. Take. Lay hold, seize, grasp, obtain ; capture, fasten on ; at- tack ; gain, captivate, charm ; choose, turn to; employ, use, demand, require; copy, deline- ate; assume, adopt; acquire; engage in, indulge in; carry, convey, conduct; remove, with- draw, deduct; acknowledge, ac- cept; receive, admit; partake of, swallow; undertake, clear; tolerate, endure; consider, in- terpret, suppose; receive, sub- mit to, bear. ANT. Drop, reject, abandon, surrender, miss, lose, repel, re- fuse, decline, repulse, spurn. Talent. Ability, gift, endow- ment, genius, faculty; capac- ity, cleverness, aptitude, forte. ANT. Inability, ineptitude, incompetence, imbecility, stu- pidity. Tangible. Perceptible, tactile, palpable; apprehensible, evi- dent, manifest, clear; material, substantial, sensible, obvious. ANT. Impalpable, spiritual, intangible, incorporeal, imma- terial, incomprehensible. Tart. Sharp, acid, sour; keen, severe; harsh, caustic, petu- lant, acrimonious. ANT. Gentle, mild, genial, kindly, poUte; mellow, sweet. Taste, n. Savor, relish, flavor, sensibility, judgment; discern- ment, nicety, perception, zest^ choice, elegancy, refinement. 264 ] tas] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [terr ANT. Disrelish, insipidity, ill-savor, coarseness, indelicacy, non-perception, indiscrimina- tion. Tasteful. Delicate, artistic, el- egant, dainty, esthetic, exqui- site, fastidious, fine, chaste, nice, tasty, delicious, esthetical. ANT. Coarse, rough, rude, harsh, hideous, clumsy, dis- ffusting, deformed, displeasing, fulsome, gaudy, grotesque, dis- tasteful, horrid, inartistic, in- harmonious, meretricious, of- fensive, ragged, tawdry. Taunt, v. Ridicule, mock, jeer, deride, revile, flout, scoff, scorn, insult; reproach, rebuke, cen- sure. ANT. Compliment, flatter, approve of, congratulate. Teach. Discipline, instruct, tu- tor, school, train, educate, en- lighten, drill, inculcate, give lessons, give instructions, in- doctrinate, inform, initiate, in- still, nurture. ANT. Learn, study, prac- tice, investigate, experiment, try, develop, receive, drink in, acquire, attain, imbibe, under- stand, glean, gather, collect. Tedious. Wearisome, fatiguing, irksome, tiresome; prolix, dull, slow, monotonous, tiring, try- ing. ANT. Interesting, exciting, amusing, charming, delightful, stirring, bright, entertaining. Tell. Enumerate, communicate, impart, reveal, disclose, report, acquaint, repeat, rehearse, dis- cover; count, number, reckon, recount; narrate, divulge; in- form, teach; order, command, request. Temerity. Audacity, foolhar- diness, rashness, presumption, recklessness, hardihood, hasti- ness, heedlessness, precipita- tion, overconfidence, precipi- tancy, venturesomeness. ANT. Care, caution, hesita- tion, cowardice, timidity, wari- ness, circum-spection. Temporal. Transient, fleeting, transitory, temporary; terres- trial, worldly, secular, mun- dane. ANT. Eternal, permanent, everlasting; religious, spirit- ual. Tendency. Proneness, drift, aim, disposition; direction, course; influence; inclination, leaning, bent, bias; proclivity, aptitude, propensity, liability. ANT. Aversion, repulsion, repugnance; opposition, reluc- tance, divergence, tangency, de- viation. Tender. Effeminate, soft, sen- sitive, compassionate, humane, kind, merciful, pitiful, dear, delicate; gentle, mild, suscep- tible. ANT. Hard, pitiless, callous, careless, heedless, rough, coarse, unkind, inhuman, unmerciful, unfeeling ; hardy, strong, stur- dy. Tension. Strain, stretch, effort, stretching, tensity, tenseness, rigor, severity, harshness, stiff- ness, tightness. ANT. Relaxation, release, re- lief, laxity, slackness, looseness. Term. Boundary, limit; expres- sion, phrase, word, name ; mem- ber, condition, denomination. Termination. Limit, end, con- clusion, bound, result; com- pletion, consequence, effect; ful- filment, consummation, accom- plishment, achievement, finis, finality, exit, issue. ANT. Beginning, initiation, inception, commencement, rise f start, origin, source, cause, pro- cess, course. [ 265 ] ter] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS Terrible. Terrific, fearful, hor- rible, shocking, awful; dread- ful, formidable, frightful; tre- mendous ; astounding, startling. ANT. Insignificant, amusing, pleasing; unastonishing. Terse. Concise, pithy, succinct, short, brief, laconic, compact, sententious, condensed, com- pendious, neat. ANT. Long, lengthy, tedious, wordy, diffuse, prolix, verbose. Testimony. Affirmation, certi- fication, deposition, proof, evi- dence, witness, affidavit, attes- tation, oath. ANT. Demonstration. Theory. Hypothesis, specula- tion; doctrine, conjecture, ex- planation; assumption, scheme, postulate, plan; science, phil- osophy ; exposition, rationale ; supposition. ANT. Fact, truth, verity, ac- tuality. Therefore. Consequently, then, hence, thence, whence, where- fore, accordingly. ANT. Because, as for, inas- much as, since. Thick. Dense, close, compact, solid, coarse, gross; muddy, turbid, misty; crowded, abun- dant; indistinct; dull; numer- ous; inarticulate. ANT. Thin, rare, sparse, in- frequent; pure, limpid, crystal- line, clear, distinct, incompact, shallow, articulate. Think. Cogitate, contemplate ; remember, reflect, muse, medi- tate, ponder, consider, deliber- ate, judge, conclude, believe; purpose, intend, design, mean; presume, venture; imagine, ap- prehend. ANT. Guess, hazard; dream, idle, stargaze, wander, rove. Thought. Imagination, fancy, conceit, notion, consideration, supposition, contemplation, de- liberation ; reflection, cogita- tion, meditation, conception, solicitude, care, concern; rea- soning; idea, opinion, concept, judgment, purpose, intention, provision. ANT. Thoughtlessness, gid- diness, carelessness, inconsider- ation, dreaminess, dulness, stu- pidity, rashness, impulsiveness ; vacuity, dream, hallucination, aberration. Threat. Menace, denunciation, threatening, intimidation. ANT. Promise, encourage- ment, allurement, enticement; anticipation. Thrifty. Economical, saving, careful; sparing, frugal, indus- trious, prosperous, thriving; provident, foresighted. ANT. Wasteful, prodigal, un- economical, lavish, spendthrift, extravagant; slack, laay; im- provident, unprepared. Throng. Concourse, crowd, host, jam, mass, multitude, press. ANT. Solitude; unlderness, desert, waste. Tidings. Message, information, intelligence, news, rumor, re- port, advices, announcement. ANT. Suppression, censor- ship, misinformation, canard. Time. Epoch, era, period, date, age, eon, season, term, while, succession, sequence, duration. Timid. Fearful, timorous, cow- ardly, afraid, pusillanimous, faint-hearted, shrinking, retir- ing, shy; diffident, bashful. ANT. Bold, confident, ven- turesome, courageous, adven- turous, heedless. Tip. Incline, lean, list, slant, slope, tilt, cant, careen, dip, heel over. Tire. Exhaust, fag, weary, fa- tigue, jade, harass, wear out. [ 260 ] tit] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [tra ANT. Refresh, recreate, rest, relax, relieve, repose, restore, invigorate. Title. Epithet, name, appella- tion, designation, cognomen, de- nomination ; address, inscrip- tion, heading, style. ANT. Nondescript, nameless- ness. Together. With, in company, as- sociated, conjoined, unitedly, si- multaneously, contemporane- ously, coincidently. ANT. Separately, variously, independently. Toil. Labor, drudgery, work, ex- ertion, employment, occupation, task, travail. ANT. Rest, relaxation, recre- ation, ease,' amusement, plea-s- ure, enjoyment, fun. Tolerable. Endurable, bearable, supportable ; passable, medium, ordinary, mediocre, indiffer- ent. ANT. Intolerable, unendur- able, insufferable, unbearable, insupportable. Tool. Appliance, implement, ap- paratus, mechanism, utensil, machine, weapon. Topic. Head, division, motion, point, proposition, question, is- sue, subject, theme, matter. Torment. Pain, misery, agony, anguish, torture, distress. ANT. Enjoyment, pleasure, comfort, ease, gratification, de- light. Total, a. Whole, entire, full, ab- solute, complete, undivided. ANT. Partial, imperfect, in- complete, divided, fractional, sectional. Trace. Mark, remains, sign, ves- tige, track, token, trail, foot- mark, footprint, footstep, im- pression, memorial, remnant. Trade. Profession, occupation, office, calling, avocation, em- ployment, commerce, dealing, traffic. ANT. Stagnation, inactivity, dulness, embargo; leisure, va- cation, idleness, vacancy. Tragedy. Mournful drama; ca- tastrophe, calamity, adversity, disaster, affliction. ANT. Comedy, happinest, mirthful drama, prosperity, luck, good fortune. Traitor. Betrayer, turncoat, renegade, rebel, deceiver, apos- tate; insurgent, deserter, mu- tineer. ANT. Patriot, adherent, de- fender, supporter. Tranquil. Quiet, calm, undis- turbed, peaceful, unagitated; unruffled, composed, poised, col- lected, cool. ANT. Agitated, excited, un- easy, anxious, troubled, rest- less. Transact. Conduct, carry on, perform, act, accomplish, da, negotiate, treat. ANT. Leave alone, rest, stop, refrain, desist, cease. Transaction. Business, action, deed, proceeding, doing, affair, act, negotiation, performance. ANT. Inactivity, quiescence, rest, neglect, inaction, passivity. Transgression. Infringement, misdemeanor, misdeed, affront; violation, breach, fault, crime, offense, sin. ANT. Innocence, guiltless- ness; purity, righteousness; observance, obedience, fulfil- ment. Transient. Fleeting, tempo- rary, transitory, ephemeral, evanescent, brief, flitting, fly- ing, momentary, passing, fugi- tive, short. ANT. Permanent, perpetual, lasting, enduring, abiding, im- mortal, everlasting, unfading, ( 267 ] tra] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [turn undying, persistent, eternal, im- perishable. Transparent. Translucent, pel- lucid, clear, lucid; diaphanous; open, porous; crystalline, lim- pid, bright; perspicuous. ANT. Opaque, thick, turbid; mysterious, questionable, du- bious. Travel. Go, pass, journey, mi- grate, move, traverse, wander, roam. ANT. Dwell, reside, stay, re- main, settle. Treasure. Wealth, abundance, plenty; money, jewels, cash, valuables, hoard, riches, bul- lion; reserve. ANT. Refuse, trash, offal; dregs, trifles. Treaty. Negotiation, compact, agreement, covenant, alliance, convention, contract. ANT. Neutrality, non-in- terference, non-intervention. Tremendous. Frightful, terri- fic, horrible, awful; fearful, appalling, alarming, horrify- ing, dreadful. ANT. Unappalling, incon- siderable, unimposing. Trial. Attempt, endeavor, es- say; effort, exertion; experi- ence, proof, test; examination, experiment ; criterion, ordeal, assay ; temptation, trouble, affliction, distress, grief, suf- fering, tribulation. ANT. Non-attempt; ease, fa- tility; acceptance; oversight, disregard; trifle, triviality. Trick. Stratagem, wile, fraud, cheat, juggle, finesse, sleight; deception, imposture, delusion, imposition; artifice, machina- tion, contrivance, legerde- main. ANT. Exposure, revelation, examination; blunder, botch, bungling, fumbling, maladroit- ness, mishap; genuineness, art- lessness, openhandedness. Triumph. Success, conquest, victory; ovation, celebration, jubilee, jubilation, exultation; achievement, attainment. ANT. Defeat, failure, disap- pointment, discomfiture, abor- tion, baffling. Trouble. Affliction, sorrow, dis- turbance, perplexity, vexation, molestation, annoyance, incon- venience, calamity, misfortune, adversity, misery; tribulation, distress, disaster, torment, diffi- culty, anxiety. ANT. Blessing, peace, com- posure, alleviation, appease- ment, pleasure, fortune, boon, affluence, happiness, joy, suc- cess, gladness, ease, facility, amusement, recreation. True. Correct, accurate, pre- cise, exact; unwavering, faith- ful, loyal; actual, pure, real, genuine; veritable. ANT. Untrue, false, ficti- tious, unreliable, incorrect, in- accurate, inexact; vacillating, disloyal, faithless; counterfeit, impure, unreal, factitious, un- trustworthy, adulterated, spu- rious, fickle, treacherous. Trust, n. Confidence, belief, ex- pectation, faith, hope; reliance. ANT. Doubt, misgiving, dis- trust, skepticism, suspense; de- spair. Truth. Fact, reality, fidelity, conformity, exactness ; stead- fastness; veracity, verity; ac- curacy, precision, faithfulness. ANT. Falsehood, falsity, lie, untruth, fabrication, fiction; fallacy, mistake, sophism. Tumult. Ferment, disturbance, turbulence, disorder, bluster, hubbub, bustle, brawl, riot; ex. citement, distraction, confusion, turmoil, noise. [ 268 ] tur] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [unc ANT. Peace, order, orderli- ness, pacification, quiet, sub- sidence. Turn, n. Revolution; alteration, vicissitude ; winding, bending, meandering; stroll; succession, alternation ; chance, occasion ; convenience, purpose, exigence; form, cast, shape, manner, fash- ion; rotation, recurrence; op- portunity; deed, office, treat- ment, act; tendency, talent, gift; crisis. ANT. Fixity, unchangeable- ness, immobility, uniformity, stability, continuity; indepen- dence; malformation, shape- lessness. Turn, v. Revolve, reverse, de- flect, change; divert, transfer, use, employ, apply, devote; al- ter, metamorphose, transform, convert; shape, mold, adapt; whirl; hinge, depend; eventu- ate, issue, terminate. ANT. Stick, stop, remain; adhere, hold to; persist, con- tinue; stabilitate, perpetuate, arrest, stereotype. Tutor. Teacher, instructor, pro- fessor, preceptor, master, sa- vant, guardian, governor. ANT. Pupil, student, nov- ice, disciple, scholar, ward, learner. Twist, v. Contort, writhe, con- volve; pervert, distort; wind, wreathe ; insinuate ; encircle. ANT. Straighten, untwist, rectify, unwind, disentangle, unravel; verify, substantiate. Type. Mark, stamp, sign, em- blem; style, semblance; repre- sentation, similitude, figure, symbol, token; character, pat- tern, archetype, model, norm; cast, mold, fashion. ANT. Caricature, monstros- ity, abnormity; falsification, deviation; misrepresentation. u Ubiquity. Omnipresence; uni- versal presence, all-pervasive- ness. ANT. Localization, limita- tion. Ugly. Loathsome, unsightly, re- pulsive ; ill-natured, quarrel- some; unpleasant; plain, ordi- nary, homely, hideous, fright- ful; cross, vicious. ANT. Attractive, handsome, fair, pleasant, agreeable, beau- tiful, shapely, comely; lovely, kindly, good-natured, gentle. Ultimate. Final, last, conclu- sive, farthest, extreme, most remote; elemental. ANT. Initial, nearest, be- ginning, primary. UXL-. A prefix meaning not or icithout, or simply intensive, which ia prefixed to nouns, ad- jectives, adverbs, and the par- ticiples of verbs. Words whose meaning is simply that of the root word with negative or in- tensive emphasis are omitted here, and their synonyms and antonyms may be formed from those of the root word. Unction. Anointing, ointment; power, fervor, animation, fer- vency, ardor, enthusiasm, en- ergy, spirit, emotion. ANT. Tameness, perfunctori- ness, coldness, lifelessness. Unctuous. Fatty, oily, greasy; bland, suave, tender, fervid ; ob- sequious, fawning, servile, sye~ ophantic. [ 269 ] und] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [unl ANT. Blunt, brusk, abrupt; cynical, sarcastic; harsh, un- mannerly, uncomplimentary. Under-. A prefix meaning be- neath or below. Words whose meaning is simply that of the root word with the meaning of the prefix added are omitted in this place, and their syno- nyms and antonyms may be formed in many cases from those of the root word. Under, prep. Below, beneath, underneath. ANT. Above, upon, over. Understand. Know, compre- hend ; learn, be informed, hear ; recognize, interpret; imply, assume ; apprehend, discern, see, perceive, conceive, pene- trate. ANT. Misunderstand, mis- comprehend, misinterpret; de- clare, state; express, inform. Understanding. Sense, intelli- gence, conception, perception, discernment, knowledge, intu- ition, cognition, reason; inter- pretation; mind, brains. ANT. Insensibility, stupid- ity, dulness, obtuseness, sense- lessness, slowness, irrational- : ity, sluggishness, ignorance, un- intelligence. Undertake. Engage, enter, set about, attempt; covenant, con- tract; guarantee, promise, af- firm; project, commence; stip- ulate. ANT. Abandon, drop, desist, discontinue, decline; complete, finish, end, terminate. Undertaking. Enterprise, en- gagement, attempt, adventure, business, effort, endeavor; ex- periment, venture, interest, af- fair, matter, concern. ANT. Leisure, inactivity; recreation, Undulation. Waving motion ; vibration; wavy outline; pul- sation; oscillation, swelling; wave, ripple. ANT. Equilibrium; arresta- tion, standing; plain, table- land. Uniform. Unchanging, equable, consistent, homogeneous ; con- sonant; regular, constant, in- variable, steady; similar, un- varied, alike. ANT. Heterogeneous, vari- able, varying, diverse; irregu- lar, inconsistent, erratic, eccen- tric, unsymmetrical. Union. Unity, connection, con- cord, combination, confederacy, alliance ; coalition, conjunc- tion; harmony, concert, agree- ment ; league, confederation, consolidation; oneness, junc- ture, unification. ANT. Disconnection, separa- tion, disjunction, disunion, di- vorce, severance, analysis, dis- sociation, contrariety, decompo- sition, division, schism, parti- tion, discord, disagreement, se- cession, disruption; multiplica- tion, diversification. Unique. Sole, only, unmatched, unequalled, unparalleled, sin- gular, peculiar, exceptional, rare. ANT. Common, universal, everyday, commonplace, ordi- nary, familiar, vulgar, mean. Unison. Harmony, agreement, concord, union, accordance. ANT. Discord, variance, dis' agreement, divergence. Unit. Oneness, unity; one; in- tegral; item, individual. ANT. Sum, mass, total, ag- gregate, whole, collection. Unite. Add, join, attach, an ( nex; combine, connect; agree harmonize, associate, coalesce; incorporate, consolidate, amal gamate, blend, embody, merge > [ 270 ] uni] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [use concur, coSperate, league, con- federate. ANT. Disjoin, sever, sepa- rate, divide, resolve, discon- nect; disintegrate, dissociate, sunder, diverge; multiply, split, disrupt. Unity. Oneness, concord, con- junction, agreement, junction, uniformity, harmony, union ; singleness, unanimity. ANT. Separation, disunion, disconnection, division, disa- greement, divorce. "Universal. General, unlimited, all-reaching; total, whole, en- tire; catholic, common; com- prehensive, exhaustive, com- plete. ANT. Specific, special, indi- vidual, particular, limited, lo- cal, partial, exclusive, excep- tional. "Up-. A prefix giving the idea of elevation or an intensive value. Words whose meaning is derived quite simply from that of the root plus that of the prefix are omitted here. Their synonyms and antonyms may be readily formed from those of the root word. Upbraid. Reproach, censure, blame, condemn; taunt, chide, reprove. ANT. Approve, commend, praise, eulogize, compliment, applaud. Upon. On; about, concerning; with, immediately after, forth- with. ANT. Under, beneath, "be- low; before, after, without. Upper. Higher, superior, on top. ANT. Lower, inferior, below, beneath. Upright. Erect, perpendicular, vertical; honest, just, honor- able, conscientious, virtuous, good, faithful, true, trust- worthy. ANT. Inclined, slanted; in- verted; unprincipled, dishon- est, unscrupulous, corrupt, un- conscientious. Uproar. Tumult, disturbance, confusion, bustle, clamor, com- motion, turmoil, racket, noise, din. ANT. Peace, calm, quiet, si- lence, order, tranquillity. Urbane. Courteous, polite, re- fined, suave, elegant; civil, pol- ished. ANT. Discourteous, uncivil t unrefined, impolite, rude, boor- ish. Urge. Animate, instigate, stimu- late, encourage, arouse; impel, press, drive; beseech, entreat, importune; goad, spur, incite; hasten, accelerate, expedite. ANT. Hold back, hinder, ob- struct, prevent, retard, inhibit, restrain; defy, challenge, dare; oppose, object. Urgent. Urging, pressing, im- portunate, immediate, impor- tant, imperative, grave, momen- tous, serious, cogent, solicitous, critical, emergency, necessi- tous. ANT. Trivial, insignificant, unimportant, immaterial, in- considerable. Usage. Custom, wont, habit, use; mode, method, manners, behavior; practice, procedure; fashion. Use. Employment, application, occasion, necessity, usefulness, utility; practice, usage, cus- tom, manner, habit; service^ advantage; profit, avail, need; benefit. ANT. Uselessness, misappli- cation, super -fluousness, worth- lessness, disuse, non-observ- ance, desuetude. [ 271 ] use] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [vac Useful. Advantageous, profit- able, serviceable, beneficial ; fruitful, effectual, suitable, ef- fective, adapted, helpful, good, convenient, valuable, available. ANT. Useless, profitless, un- profitable, valueless, unservice- able, fruitless, inconducive, in- effectual, unavailing, retarding, hindering, preventive, obstruc- tive, cumbersome, burdensome, unusable. Usual. Familiar, frequent, ordi- nary, regular, wonted, preva- lent, accustomed, common, cus- tomary, everyday, general, nor- mal, habitual, prevailing, pub- lic. ANT. Exceptional, infre- quent, extraordinary, strange, uncommon, unparalleled, un- usual, out-of-the-way, singular, rare. Usurp. Arrogate, assume, ap- propriate, seize. ANT. Inherit, accept, re- ceive. Utility. Profit, expediency, use, usefulness, avail, benefit, ad- vantage, service, usableness. ANT. Futility, inutility, in- adequacy, inexpediency, use- lessness, folly, impolicy, disad- vantage, worthlessness, un- profitableness. Utmost. Farthest, extreme, re- motest, last, most distant; ut- termost; greatest. ANT. Nearest, next; least. Utter, v. Issue, deliver, liberate, discharge; circulate, pass; ex- press, publish, disclose, speak, pronounce; promulgate. ANT. Suppress, recall, check, stifle, hush, repress; retract, disavow. Utter, a. Complete, perfect, to- tal, entire, absolute; peremp- tory, unconditional, unquali- fied; thorough. ANT. Imperfect, incomplete; conditioned, qualified; partial. Utterly. Fully, totally, thor- oughly. ANT. Partially, imperfectly, specifically. Vacancy. Emptiness; leisure, intermission, idleness ; vacu- um; chasm, gap; interval; va- cuity, space, void. ANT. Fulness, plethora, re- pletion; business, occupation, employment. Vacant. Blank, empty, void, un- occupied, waste, unemployed, untenanted, vacuous, unfilled, devoid, unencumbered, disen- gaged, idle, uncrowded; inane, silly; free; thoughtless, uare- flective; abandoned; inane; leisure; unmeaning. ANT. Full, filled, occupied, replenished, diligent, buaj/, en- gaged, employed; reflective, thoughtful, meaningful; brim- ful, busy, crammed, inhabited, packed, replete, brimmed, over- flowing, brimming, jammed, gorged, crowded. Vacate. Empty, make vacant, quit, resign, surrender; annul, abrogate, cancel, invalidate, ab- scind, abolish, overrule, neu- tralize. ANT. Fill, occupy, employ, hold, retain, substantiate. Vacation. Interval, intermis- sion, holidays, rest, leisure. ANT. Worktime, term, busi- ness. I 272 ] vac] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [val Vacillate. Fluctuate, waver, be unsteady, stagger, reel, sway, rock, hesitate, be inconstant, dubitate. ANT. Adhere, abide, deter- mine, be steadfast, stay. Vacillation. Wavering, fluctu- ating, swaying, reeling, rock- ing, fluctuation, hesitation, in- constancy, unsteadiness. ANT. Steadiness, firmness, inflexibility, determination. Vacuity. Emptiness, vacancy, void, vacuum; inanity, nihil- ity, inanition, unreality; space. ANT. Fulness, bulk, mat- ter, substance; occupation, ac- tuality, reality; contents. Vagabond. Wanderer, vagrant, tramp, rascal; outcast, loafer, nomad, idler, beggar, rogue. ANT. Worker, laborer. Vagary. Whim, freak, crotchet, whimsicality, caprice, fancy. ANT. Purpose, idea, deter- mination, judgment, serious- ness, conviction. Vagrant, a. Wandering, erratic, unsettled, strolling, itinerant, roving, sauntering, nomadic. ANT. Domestic, local, estab- lished, resident, abiding, dwell- ing. Vague. Unsettled, undetermined, indefinite, ambiguous, lax, un- certain, dim, doubtful, obscure, indistinct, unfixed, general, in- tangible, equivocal, pointless ; unwarranted, unauthorized. ANT. Determined, limited, strict, specific, pointed, definite, distinct, scientific, settled, clear, fixed, manifest, perspicuous. Vain. Futile, trivial, vapid, vis- ionary, worthless, abortive, un- satisfying, fruitless, empty, de- ceitful, baseless, delusive, boot- less, idle, ineffectual, shadowy, trifling, unserviceable, unsub- stantial, profitless, inconstant, unprofitable, null, nugatory, un- availing, unimportant, unreal; showy, useless ; conceited, arro- gant, ostentatious. ANT. Adequate, solid, use- ful, effective, powerful, worthy, important, sufficient, service- able, potent, competent, advan- tageous, beneficial, efficient, ear- pedient, profitable, real, sound, substantial, valid, valuable, es- sential, cogent, availing, satis- factory, modest. Valediction. Farewell, valedic- tory, leave-taking, adieu. ANT. Salutation, welcome, hail, reception, recognition. Valiant. Strong, powerful, in- trepid, courageous, brave, val- orous, heroic, gallant, chival- rous, daring, dauntless, bold, fearless, redoubtable, undaunt- ed, stout-hearted. ANT. Timid, cowardly, fear- ful, timorous, recreant, craven. Valid. Sound, good, justified, trustworthy, well-grounded, effi- cacious, weighty, powerful, effi- cient, conclusive, logical, solid, cogent, important, grave, sub- stantial, sufficient. ANT. Weak, invalid, null, void, unsound, baseless, falla- cious, unfounded, untrue; un- available, inoperative, super- seded. Validity. Soundness, justness, efficacy, force, weight, cogency, importance. ANT. Weakness, impotency, ineffectiveness, lightness, futil- ity. Valor. Bravery, courage, prow- ess, intrepidity, heroism, bold- ness, daring. ANT. Timidity, fearfulness, cowardice, pusillanimity. Valuable. Worthy, estimable, costly, precious, expensive, use- ful, dear, serviceable. [ 273 ] val] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [var ANT. Worthless, valueless, cheap, inexpensive, silly, use- less, trifling, trivial. Value, n. Worth, utility, desir- ability, importance, power; im- port, signification; esteem, re- gard, excellence; price, cost, equivalent. ANT. Cheapness, reduction, depreciation. Value, v. Compute, esteem, re- spect, regard; be worth, rate, appraise, estimate; appreciate, prize, treasure, account. ANT. Cheapen, reduce, con- temn, despise, undervalue, un- derestimate; disregard, dises- teem, misprize. Vanish. Disappear, fade, pass away, dissolve, melt away, be annihilated. ANT. Appear, approach, 'be manifest, loom up, arrive. Vanity. Pride, conceit; unreal- ity, worthiessness, emptiness ; hollo wness, triviality, futility, unsubstantiality, falsity; ego- ism, self-sufficiency; show, os- tentation. ANT. Reality, truth, worth; simplicity; modesty, humility, self -distrust ; substance, solid- ity. Vanquish. Conquer, overcome, subdue, defeat, surmount, con- fute, silence; subjugate, over- throw, master, foil, discomfit, quell; disprove, confound. ANT. Succumb, yield, fail. Vapid. Dead, spiritless, flat, in- sipid, dull, unanimated; taste- less, stale, tame; languid, pro- saic, feeble, prosy. ANT. Pungent, spirited, ani- mated, pithy, trenchant. Vapor, n. Fume, steam, reek, ex- halation, smoke, fog, mist; va- gary, phantom, whim, dream, vision ; flatulence ; fantasy. ANT. Inhalation, absorption. Variable. Changeable, fickle, in- constant, mutable, shifting, un- steady, vacillating, wavering, fluctuating, versatile, capri- cious. ANT. Unchanging, immu- table, constant, firm, unwaver- ing, steady, invariable, unalter- able. Variance. Variation, dissension, disagreement, discord, differ- ence, alteration, strife; hostil- ity, antagonism, discrepancy, estrangement. ANT. Harmony, agreement, assimilation, reconciliation, ac- commodation, peace. Variation. Modification, alter- ation, mutation, change, diver- sity, vicissitude, variety, devia- tion; departure, difference, dis- crepancy. ANT. Fixity, harmony, con- tinuance, uniformity, rule, law, agreement. Variegated. Streaked, dappled, particolored, diversified, varied, checkered, figured, mottled. ANT. Unspotted, spotless, speckless. Variety. Diversity, difference, as- sortment, species, class, multi- far iousness, medley, miscellany, multiplicity, kind. ANT. Type, species, speci- men, uniformity. Various. Different, diverse, sev- eral, manifold, changeable, un- certain, inconstant, variable, variegated, sundry, diversified. ANT. Identical, few, same, uniform, similar, single. Varnish, v. Gloss, palliate, con- ceal, cover, embellish, disguise, lacquer, extenuate, excuse, mit- igate, glaze over. ANT. Simplify, divest; re- veal, bare, manifest. Vary. Alter, change, modify, al- ternate, diversify, variegate, [ 274 ] vas] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [vea differ, deviate, depart, be di- verse, swerve, disagree, trans- form, metamorphose. ANT. Stereotype, perpetu- ate: conform, assimilate, har- monize. Vast. Spacious, huge, immense, great, mighty, transcendent, measureless, boundless, colos- sal, enormous, stupendous, pro- digious, gigantic, monstrous, re- markable, extraordinary. ANT. Moderate, limited, con- fined, circumscribed, narrow, close, small. Vaticination. Prediction, div- ination, prophecy, prognostica- tion, augury. ANT. Fulfilment, ratifica- tion, realization, verification, accomplish m en t . Vault. Jump, spring, bound, leap; tumble, turn. ANT. Crawl, creep, grovel. Vaunt. Boast, brag, display, show off; advertise, flourish, parade. ANT. Conceal, disparage, de- cry, detract, repress, suppress. Veer. Shift, turn, change, trim, vacillate. ANT. Stand, stick, adhere, persist, remain. Vegetate. Sprout, grow, germi- nate; bask, idle, hibernate. ANT. Decay, fade, wither, pine; bustle, energize, work, stir. Vehemence. Impetuosity, vio- lence, fury, frenzy, ardor, fer- vor, fervency, warmth, zeal, en- thusiasm, passion, force, inten- sity. ANT. Passivity, inertia, qui- escence, coldness, stoicism, in- difference, unconcern, apathy, inattention. Vehement. Raging, hot, ar- dent, fervid, burning, passion- ate, eager, violent, impetuous, furious, urgent, mighty, for- cible, powerful, sanguine, en- thusiastic. ANT. Cool, impassive, indif- ferent, feeble, mild, controlled, subdued, cold, stoical, passion- less, weak, inanimate. Veil, v. Cover, invest, hide, con- ceal, screen, mask, shroud, en- velop. ANT. Expose, disclose, strip, denude, unveil, make manifest. Velocity. Celerity, fleetness, ra- pidity, speed, swiftness; impe- tus, momentum. ANT. Inertia, sluggishness, inertness; resistance; passiv- ity, languor, inactivity. Venal. Mercenary, hireling, sor- did, purchasable, salable, pros- titute. ANT. Honest, honorable, in- corruptible, public-spirited, pa- triotic, unpurchasable, gener- ous, disinterested. Vend. Barter, trade, sell, hawk, retail. ANT. Buy, purchase, bribe, subsidize. Venerable. Worthy, honorable, estimable; dread, awful; sage, wise, grave. ANT. Despicable, dishon- ored; informal, free, intimate, easy; foolish, silly. Venerate. Honor, respect, re- vere, reverence, adore, admire, worship. ANT. Dishonor, disregard, scorn, scoff at, slight, spurn, de- test, disdain, despise, contemn, abhor, execrate. Veneration. Reverence, adora- tion, respect, awe, worship, es- teem, dread. ANT. Irreverence, loathing, disrespect, contempt, disdain, dishonor, scorn. Vengeance. Punishment, retri- bution, revenge, retaliation. [ 275 ] ven] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [ver ANT. Forgiveness, pardon, reprieve, indulgence, amnesty, remission, absolution. Venial. Excusable, justifiable, pardonable, slight, trivial. ANT. Inexcusable, heinous, unpardonable, flagrant, mortal, infamous, unjustifiable, inex- piable. Venom. Virus, bane, poison; Bpite, malice, malignity, hate, ill will, maliciousness, rancor, grudge, bitterness, acrimony. ANT. Medicine, remedy; be- nevolence, kindness, good will. Venomous. Poisonous, malig- nant, noxious, mischievous, vir- ulent, spiteful. ANT. Wholesome, remedial, salubrious ; kindly, compas- sionate, genial. Vent. Outlet, escape, emission, utterance, discharge, opening, hole, passage; market, sale. ANT. Close, stop-gap, end, termination, obstruction, stop- page. Venture, n. Chance, risk, haz- ard, speculation; accident, con- tingency; stake, adventure, ex- periment; luck, hap; danger, jeopardy. ANT. Certainty, surety, se- curity, inevitableness, assur- ance; safety, protection; law, method; caution, calculation. Venture, v. Dare, hazard, ad- venture, risk, jeopardize, im- peril, chance. ANT. Calculate, warrant, se- cure, guarantee, protect. Venturesome. Bold, daring, ad- venturous, hardy, courageous, intrepid, enterprising, doughty, fearless. ANT. Fearsome, timid, re- luctant, averse, loath, unwill- ing. Venturous. Bold, daring, fear- less, venturesome. ANT. Timid, fearful, diffi- dent, shy. Veracious. True, truthful, re- liable, trustworthy, straight- forward, honest, credible. ANT. False, deceitful, men- dacious, lying, dishonest, per- fidious. Veracity. Honesty, truthful- ness, reality, candor, truth, in- genuousness, frankness, verity, exactness, correctness, accuracy. ANT. Deception, duplicity, falsehood, fiction, guile, men- dacity, untruth, lie, delusion, fabrication, deceit, error, false- ness, falsity, imposture. Verbal. Spoken, oral, literal, parole, vocal, unwritten, unre- corded. ANT. Written, recorded, epis- tolary, documentary. Verbose. Wordy, prolix, diffuse, prosy, tedious. ANT. Laconic, terse, concise, succinct, curt. Verdict. Decision, judgment, opinion, pronouncement, find- ing, sentence. ANT. Indecision, indetermi- nation. Verge, n. Border, limit, bound- ary, edge, margin, brink; cir- cumference, circle, ring; rim, brim, confine, skirt. ANT. Center, midst, heart, depth. Verge, v. Tend, incline, slope, lean, trend, bear, border, ap- proach, approximate. ANT. Deviate, recede, revert, return, depart, retrocede. Verify. Prove, correct, estab- lish, confirm, authenticate, af- firm ; corroborate, attest, sub- stantiate; fulfil, demonstrate, warrant. ANT. Falsify, misrepresent, subvert, misstate, fail, dises- tablish, mistake. [ 276 ] ver} SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [vie Verisimilitude. Likelihood, probability, consistency. ANT. Improbability, incon- sistency, unlikelihood. Veritable. Actual, real, genuine, true; positive, absolute; orig- inal, authentic. ANT. False, fictitious, sham, spurious, untrue, feigned, sup- posititious. Verity. Fact, truth, reality, ac- tuality, existence, truthfulness. ANT. Falsity, unreality, de- lusion, fancy, dream, conjec- ture, hypothesis. Vernal. Spring, balmy, genial, youthful. ANT. Wintry, aged, autum- nal, decadent, brumal, harsh, cutting. Versatile. Changeable, incon- sistent, variable, many-sided, capricious, erratic, fickle, un- stable; mobile, plastic, ready. ANT. Fixed, uniform, one- sided, immobile, immutable, un- varied. Versed. Experienced, studied, practiced, skilled, acquainted, conversant, proficient, familiar, clever, indoctrinated. ANT. Unskilled, ignorant, unpracticed, untaught, uniniti- ated. Version. Account, description, translation, rendering, inter- pretation, reading; statement. ANT. Text, problem, diffi- culty; misinterpretation. Vertical. Perpendicular, plumb, upright. ANT. Inclined, slanting, slop- ing. Vestige. Trace, mark, footstep, track, sign, remains, trail, to- ken, remnant, record. ANT. Misindieation; oblit- eration, effacement. Veteran. Old soldier; expert, adept, proficient; habituS. ANT. Novice, recruit, tyro. Veto. Prohibit, forbid, negative, withhold assent to. ANT. Pass, approve, assent to, promulgate, endorse. Vex. Agitate, disquiet, harass, afflict, tease, weary, jade; tor- ment, worry, hector, distress, annoy, trouble, perplex, bother, persecute, fret, irritate, offend, provoke, affront, disturb, tan- talize. ANT. Please, soothe, quiet, allay, appease. Vexation. Chagrin, agitation, mortification, uneasiness, grief, trouble, sorrow, distress, irri- tation, displeasure, affliction, plague, torment. ANT. Pleasure, enjoyment, gratification, satisfaction. Vibrate. Swing, oscillate, fluc- tuate, quiver, waver, undulate, quake. ANT. Rest, be still. Vice. Crime, sin, fault, iniquity; defect, error, blemish, imper- fection, immorality, depravity, wickedness ; evil, corruption. ANT. Virtue, goodness, per- fection, righteousness, nobility, honor. Vicinity. Neighborhood, vici- nage, nearness, proximity, pro- pinquity. ANT. Distance, remoteness, separation, removal. Vicious. Faulty, wicked, cor- rupt, depraved ; foul, noxious, defective, unruly, refractory, spiteful, malignant, mischiev- ous, immoral. ANT. Virtuous, pure, good, upright, noble, moral, perfect. Vicissitude. Change, alterna- tion, mutation, interchange, va- riation, revolution. ANT. Fixity, changeless ness, stability, perpetuity, immut<t- bility. [ 277 vic] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [vin Victorious. Conquering, trium- phant, winning, successful, ex- ultant, elated, boastful, van- quishing, subduing, prevailing, overcoming, mastering, subju- gating. ANT. Defeated, worsted, hu- miliated, beaten, baffled, dis- comfited, conquered, overcome, vanquished, routed, repulsed, foiled, disconcerted. Victory. Success, supremacy, triumph, achievement, advan- tage, conquest, mastery. ANT. Defeat, disaster, de- struction, overthrow, miscar- riage, retreat, rout, failure, disappointment, frustration. Victuals. Food, provisions, vi- ands, sustenance, meat. View, n. Sight, look, survey, inspection; perception, exami- nation; reach, range; scene, prospect ; sketch ; conception, judgment, opinion; object, aim, purpose, design; vista, perspec- tive; picture, intention, scope, drift; estimate; apprehension. ANT. Blindness, darkness, obscuration, mistiness; preju- dice, misconception, misrepre- sentation, deception, error, de- lusion, aimlessness, non-inten- tion, occultation. View, v. See, behold, look at, survey, examine, inspect, ex- plore, consider, contemplate, re- gard, scan, witness, study, re- flect upon, reconnoiter. ANT. Overlook, neglect, pass by, miss, slight, ignore; mises- timate, misjudge. Vigilance. Sleeplessness, wake- fulness, watchfulness, circum- spection, attentiveness, wari- ness, cautiousness, caution, ac- tivity, lookout, alertness, ob- servation. A:XT. Torpor, dulness, inat- tention, somnolence, careless- ness, drowsiness, indifference, apathy. Vigilant. Alert, awake, careful, on the alert, on the lookout, wary, watchful, wakeful, wide- awake, sleepless, cautious, cir- cumspect. ANT. Negligent, thoughtless, unwary, oblivious, drowsy, in- attentive, careless, dull, heed- less, inconsiderate, neglectful, incautious. Vigorous. Full of vigor, strong, lusty, robust; forcible, ener- getic, powerful, sturdy, hearty, thrifty, flourishing, spirited, lively. ANT. Weak, impotent, inca- pacitated, feeble, inactive, debil- itated, powerless, effete, ener- vated, indolent. Vile. Low, base, worthless, des- picable, mean, depraved, im- pure, sinful, wicked, bad, dis- honorable, ignoble, degraded, sordid, infamous, low-minded. ANT. Noble, exalted, honor- able, upright, estimable, great, worthy, eminent, liberal, free, generous, superior, dignified, sublime, stately. Villain. Scoundrel, knave, ras- cal, scamp, ruffian, rogu; malefactor. ANT. Oentleman, man of re- finement, polish, delicacy, and honor. Villainous. Base, vile, mean, de- praved; sorry, mischievous, in- famous, knavish ; heinous, sin- ful, outrageous, atrocious. ANT. Gentlemanly, noble, refined, honorable, worthy, up- right. Vindicate. Maintain, defend, justify; assert, protest, pro- nounce, declare, asseverate ; up- hold, claim, substantiate, sup- port, advocate. AXT. Surrender, yield, givt [ 278 ] Yin] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [vis up, resign; abandon, forego, waive; destroy, annul, vitiate; accuse, charge, impute, tax, slur. Vindictive. Revengeful, unfor- giving, implacable, spiteful, un- relenting, malicious. ANT. Forgiving, generous, merciful, long-suffering, mag- nanimous. Violate. Injure, disturb, inter- rupt, transgress, desecrate, de- bauch, dishonor, outrage, pro- fane, abuse, infringe, ravish. ANT. Respect, protect, rev- erence, honor, value, prize, fos- ter, shelter. Violence. Vehemence, impetu- osity, fierceness, force, viola- tion, infraction, infringement, transgression, profanation, as- sault, outrage. ANT. Preservation, defense, protection; mildness, self-con- trol, gentleness, respect, obedi- ence, conservation. Violent. Fierce, vehement, out- rageous, boisterous, turbulent, impetuous, passionate, severe, extreme. ANT. Sane, sober, calm, col- lected, unruffled, composed, cool. Virgin, n. Maid, maiden, girl, damsel. ANT. Wife, mother, married woman; prostitute, whore. Virgin, a. Chaste, maidenly, modest; pure, undefiled, fresh, new. ANT. Married, matronly, motherly; defiled, polluted. Virile. Mature, masculine ; mas- terful, forceful; robust, vigor- ous. ANT. Feminine; feeble, ef- feminate, puerile, emasculate. Virtual. Potential, efficacious, energizing, implicit, indirect, practical, essential, equivalent. ANT. Stated, direct, definite, expressed, explicit, emphatic, categorical. Virtue. Energy, strength, po- tency, efficacy; value, merit, excellence ; worth, meritori- ousnesa; integrity, purity, vir- ginity, chastity; goodness, mo- rality, uprightness, rectitude, probity, righteousness ; force, power, capacity ; honor, worthi- ness, honesty, truth, duty, vir- tuousness, faithfulness, justice. ANT. Inability, weakness, impotency, inefficacy ; badness, corruption, impurity, unchas- tity, depravity, wickedness, laa- ity, dishonesty. Virtuous. Excellent, upright, righteous, pure, chaste; good, honest, exemplary, blameless, worthy, modest. ANT. Wicked, bad, wrong, unrighteous, impure, dishonest, worthless, immodest, blame- worthy. Virulence. Malignancy, virus, contagion, poison, venom; bit- terness, malevolence, acrimony. ANT. Mildness, blandness, salubriousness, abatement, as- suagement; potency; benevo~ lence, virtue. Visible. Perceptible, noticeable, apparent, open, conspicuous, ob- vious, manifest, evident, clear, plain, observable, palpable, dis- cernible. ANT. Invisible, unseen, itn~ perceptible, concealed, eclipsed, indistinguishable, impalpable, microscopic, indiscernible. Vision. Sight; apparition, crea- tion, phantom, fancy, specter, appearance, chimera, illusion, phantasm. ANT. Material, substance; reality, fact, actuality. Visionary. Fanciful, fantastic, unreal, imaginary, ideal, chi- [ 279 ] Tit] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [vol merical, fantastical, wild, whimsical, capricious, illusory, romantic, shadowy, dreamy, un- substantial, fabulous. ANT. Actual, real, true, sub- stantial, genuine, palpable, au- thentic, veritable. Vital. Living; mortal; impor- tant, necessary, essential ; ani- mate ; indispensable, material, paramount. ANT. Mortal, lifeless, inani- mate, secondary, separable, un- essential, unimportant, immate- rial. Vitiate. Impair, contaminate, annul, spoil, void, destroy, in- jure; cause to deteriorate, taint; invalidate. ANT. Adhere to, corroborate, support, confirm, substantiate, justify, sanction, vindicate; re- fresh, improve, remedy. Vivacious. Animated, sportive, gay, jocund, light-hearted; merry, sprightly; brisk, frolic- some, spirited, cheerful, mirth- ful. ANT. Inanimate, dead, life- less, spiritless, heavy, somber, melancholy, mournful, sad, in- ert, dull, stolid. Vivid. Clear, lucid, striking, ac- tive, lively, quick; fresh, in- tense, animated, bright, strong, spirited, sprightly ; brilliant, lustrous, radiant, glowing, scin- tillant, sunny. ANT. Dull, opaque, lurid, ob- scure, rayless, somber, cloudy, dark, colorless, dim, pale, wan, dusky, non-luminous. Vocation. Call, summons, cita- tion; business, profession, em- ployment, calling, occupation, trade; function, mission, office. ANT. Leisure, non-employ- ment; avocation, hobby. Vogue. Mode, custom, way, use, fashion, practice, usage. ANT. Disfavor, desuetude, disuse, unfashionableness, abo- lition. Voice, n. Sound, utterance, tone; language, words, speech, judg- ment, expression, vote; com- mand, precept; opinion. ANT. Dumbness, silence, in- expression, muteness, inarticu- lation, obtumescence. Void, a. Empty, vacant, devoid, wanting, ineffectual, destitute, lacking; unoccupied, unused, unfilled; null, invalid, nuga- tory; vain, unreal, imaginary, unsubstantial. ANT. Occupied, solid, sub- stantial, possessed, endued; ef- fectual, valid, operative, good, efficacious, furnished. Volatile. Light-hearted, airy; changeable, fickle; lively, evap- orating, vaporable, vivacious, buoyant, jocund ; inconstant, flighty, whimsical, capricious, unsteady, reckless. ANT. Fixed, steady, estab- lished, determined, solid, set- tled; persistent, resolute; in- volatile; somber, demure. i Volition. Will, choice, prefer- ence, determination, purpose; discretion, free will, election, deliberation. ANT. Necessity, force, pre- destination, fate, coercion, fore- ordination. Voluble. Rotating; nimble, glib; active; fluent, loquacious, talk- ative, rapid, running, coursing. ANT. Direct; slow, deliber- ate, hesitating, stuttering, tor- pid, stammering, creeping, lazy. Volume. Book, tome; convolu- tion, coil; dimension, mass, ca- pacity, bulk, size. ANT. Minuteness, smallness. Voluntary. Spontaneous, will- ing, un compel led ; free, impul- sive; unconstrained, deliberate, [ 280 ] vol] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [wak intentional, optional, gratui- tous, by choice; discretional. ANT. Coerced, forced, invol- untary, compulsory, necessi- tated, constrained. Volunteer, v. Offer, bestow, or act freely, proffer, tender, pre- sent. ANT. Levy, draft, requisi- tion, request, demand, suborn, confiscate. Voluptuous. Sensual, sensuous, epicurean 5 luxurious, pleasur- able, licentious, self-indul- gent. ANT. Self-sacrificing, absti- nent, ascetic, self-denying, aus- tere, puritanical, renuncia- tory. Voracious. Hungry, greedy, ra- pacious, eager, ravenous, glut- tonous, insatiate, omnivorous. ANT. Fastidious, dainty, re- fined, delicate, nice. Vouch.. Declare, affirm, attest, support, asseverate, aver, pro- test, assure, promise, warrant, guarantee. ANT. Repudiate, abjure, re- nounce, protest against, demur, decline, abnegate. Vouchsafe. Grant, concede, be- stow; condescend, deign, stoop, descend, yield. ANT. Deny, refuse, toithhold. Vow, n. Promise, pledge; oath, asseveration. Vow, v. Devote, promise, conse- crate, dedicate; assert, assever- ate, swear. ANT. Release, absolve, free; pollute, defile, profane. Vulgar. Common, general, ordi- nary, public; vernacular; ple- beian ; popular ; rustic, boorish, low, coarse, base, underbred. ANT. Noble, aristocratic, pa- trician, high-born, refined, po- lite, high-bred, stylish, select, choice, cultivated; strict, scien- tific, philosophical, technical, accurate. Vulnerable. Susceptible, liable, subject, assailable, weak, ten- der, exposed. ANT. Impregnable, unassail- able, unexposed, concealed, for- tified, defended. w Waft. Bear, convey, transmit, carry, transport, make to float on waves ( of air or icater). ANT. Sink, weigh down, de- press. Wages. Salary, stipend, allow- ance, remuneration, fruit, hire, pay, compensation ; earnings ; reward, emolument. ANT. Gratuity, bonus, pre- mium, grace, douceur, gift, boon. Wait. Stay, tarry, delay, stop, abide, remain, linger; rest; ex- pect, watch, await, look for. ANT. Hasten, hurry, speed, press on; go, depart. Waive. Relinquish, forbear, re- fuse, forego; throw away, cast off, reject, desert; abandon, re- mit, quit claim, cancel, drop, renounce, surrender. ANT. Urge, assert, press, enforce, claim, defend, vindi- cate. Wake. Be awake, watch; ex- cite, arouse, stir; reanimate, revive; call, evoke, summon, provoke. ANT. Soothe, hush, tranquil* [ 281 ] wak] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [war ise, quiet; mesmerize; allay, appease, calm. WakefuL Vigilant, awake, sleep- less ; watchful, observant, wary. ANT. Drowsy, sleepy; heed- less, careless, incautious, un- wary. Walk. Move on foot, proceed; be stirring, be abroad; behave, pursue, conduct one's self; per- ambulate, pass, traverse; step, stride, march, stalk, tramp, plod, trudge, tread. ANT. Halt, stop, stand still; ride, drive. Wan. Pale, sickly, languid, pal- lid; ashen, colorless, haggard, cadaverous; livid, bloodless. ANT. Fresh-colored, bright, rosy, lively, sanguine, incarna- dine. Wander. Straggle, stroll, range ; turn aside; be delirious, rave; be crazed; expatiate; depart, saunter ; navigate, travel ; devi- ate, diverge, err, ramble, go astray, rove, stray, veer, roam, ewerve, digress. ANT. Remain, stay, settle, rest, stop, pause, moor, anchor, perch, bivouac, halt, alight, repose. Wane. Be diminished, decrease ; decline, fail, sink; fade, pale; ebb; pine, droop, deteriorate, attenuate, contract, recede. ANT. Wax, increase, rally, improve, brighten, expand, de- velop, advance. Want, n. Defect, failure, dearth, indigence, absence, scarcity, de- ficiency, lack; destitution, pov- erty, need, shortness, insuffi- ciency, scantiness. ANT. Supply, sufficiency, al- lowance, provision, abundance, production, adequacy, supple- ment. Ward, n. Watch, guardianship, guard; garrison, defender, pro- tector; defense, protection; cus- tody; keeper, guardian, war- den; pupil, minor; division! apartment. Ward, v. Watch, guard; defend, protect; repel, turn aside; be vigilant; keep guard, avert, re- pel, parry, fend. ANT. Betray, surrender, ad- mit. Warfare. Hostilities, war; con- test, struggle; strife, discord; belligerence, antagonism; cam- paign, battle, skirmish, engage- ment. ANT. Peace, truce, armis- tice; amity, pacification; neu- trality ; reconciliation; tran- quillity, friendliness, harmony, order, quiet, concord. Warlike. Military, martial, hos- tile, soldierly, inimical, belli- cose, unfriendly, belligerent. ANT. Peaceful, civil, unmili- tary, friendly, pacific, amicable. Warm. Ardent, zealous, fervent, cordial, hot, glowing; violent, vehement, furious, excited, pas- sionate; warm-blooded, warm- hearted; sunny, mild, genial, pleasant ; close, oppressive ; fer- vid, earnest, eager, enthusias- tic, hearty; lively, interested; irascible. ANT. Cool, cold; dispassion- ate, collected, composed, calm, unruffled, placid, sedate, quiet, staid; unconcerned, frigid, apa- thetic, chilling; repellent. Warmth. Fervency, glow, ear- nestness, cordiality, animation, eagerness, excitement, vehe- mence ; interest, zeal, ardor, en- thusiasm, passion, fervor, heat, intensity, spirit; emotion, life. ANT. Coolness, calmness, in- difference, frigidity, torpidity, apathy, impassiveness ; calm, chill, obtuseness, frost, iciness. Warn. Make ware, notify, ad- [ 282 ] war] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [way monish, caution; advise, men- tion to, inform, apprise; dis- suade, deter, alarm, premonish. ANT. Encourage, embolden, inspirit, hearten, induce, insti- gate, prompt, impel. "Warrant, n. Guaranty, secur- ity, voucher; commission, cre- dentials. Warrant, v. Secure, guarantee, support, justify, sanction, as- sure; empower, engage, under- take, authorize. ANT. Invalidate, nullify, re- pudiate, cancel, make void; en- danger, imperil. Wary. Circumspect, watchful, cautious, vigilant, prudent, dis- creet, heedful, thoughtful, care- ful, guarded, scrupulous, chary. ANT. Unsuspecting, unwary, incautious, negligent, heedless, inattentive, indifferent, remiss. Wash, v. Cleanse, wet, scrub, moisten, bathe, lave; overflow, fall on; waste, abrade; stain, tint, color; overlay, cover; cleanse, rinse. ANT. Soil, stain, pollute, de- file, contaminate, bemire. Waste, n. Squandering, devasta- tion, loss, decrease; void, des- ert, wilderness; refuse; prodi- gality, diminution, dissipation, destruction, havoc, desolation, ravage; solitude, expanse; con- sumption, expenditure, extrava- gance. ANT. Restoration, renova- tion, reimbursement, renewal, recovery, restitution, repara- tion; accumulation, frugality, economy, thrift, hoard, store, accretion. Waste, v. Squander, dissipate, lavish, desolate ; ruin, devas- tate, destroy; wear away, im- pair, use up, consume, spend; damage, injure. ANT. Restore, renovate, re- pair, renew; develop, multiply, augment; economize, hoard, ac- cumulate, treasure, husband, protect. Waste, a. Desolate, devastated, stripped, bare, dreary, dismal, gloomy, cheerless ; worthless, valueless, refuse, rejected, un used, superfluous. ANT. Populated, occupied, cheerful, lively; valuable, use- ful, essential, necessary. Wasteful. Destructive, ruinous; lavish, prodigal, profuse, ex- travagant. ANT. Careful, economical, frugal, protective. Watch, v. Be awake, keep vigil, be on guard, tend; heed, ob- serve, expect. ANT. Sleep, drowse, slum- ber; be careless, neglect, over- look. Watchful. Circumspect, wake- ful, heedful; vigilant, awake, attentive, wary, cautious, ob- servant. ANT. Drowsy, slumbrous, in- observant, careless, heedless, in- attentive, unwary, incautious, remiss, distracted, inadvertent. Waver. Reel, totter, vacillate, fluctuate, hesitate, dubitate, be undetermined, alternate, be perplexed, scruple. ANT. Decide, choose, settle, determine, dispose of, be stead- fast. Wavering, n. Fluctuation, hesi- tancy, indecision, vacillation; uncertainty, irresolution. ANT. Decision, determina- tion, resolution, promptness. Way. Path, road, route, street, track, alley, avenue, channel, course, highway, pathway, high- road, driveway, lane, pass, pas- sageway, passage, thoroughfare, roadway; distance, interval; motion, progression, journey; [ 283 ] way] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [wed means, scheme, device, plan; manner, method, mode, fashion, style ; practice, habit, habitude, custom, wont. ANT. Deviation, error, dis- cursion; deflection, divergence, rambling, wandering; excep- tion, variation. "Wayward. Disobedient, head- strong, froward, perverse, wil- ful, obstinate, stubborn, unruly, capricious, contrary. ANT. Amenable, docile, man- ageable, compliant, obedient. Weak. Feeble, infirm, sickly, ex- hausted, unable ; deficient ; soft, pliant, frail; low, faint; spir- itless; foolish, wavering, lack- ing; debilitated, unsound, in- valid, fragile, delicate, tender; exposed, unguarded, defense- less; pliable, irresolute; simple, silly, witless, shallow, imbecile, childish ; injudicious, unwise ; insipid, tasteless, thin, diluted, watery; imprudent, indiscreet, erring; flimsy, slight, frivolous; unsafe, unsubstantial, un- trustworthy ; ineffectual. ANT. Strong, sturdy, vigor- ous, hardy, robust, powerful; sound, hale, healthy, stout, able; efficient, capable, potent, mighty; firm, compact, secure, impregnable; forcible, intense, energetic; biting, sharp, racy, pungent; rank; tough, tena- cious, cohesive, resisting; stren- uous, ardent, eager, zealous, hearty; vivid, brilliant; solid, substantial; valid, confirmed, binding. "Weaken. Debilitate, enfeeble, enervate; invalidate; depress, impair, reduce, lower, sap, di- lute, attenuate. ANT. Strengthen, empower, invigorate; confirm, corrobo- rate, substantiate; augment, in- crease, mend, improve; enhance. Weakness. Feebleness, debility, languor, imbecility, infirmity, decrepitude, faintness, frailty. ANT. Strength, vigor, tone, health, power, efficiency, nerve, spirit. Wealth. Riches, affluence, opu- lence, abundance, plenty, for- tune, competence, estate, treas- ure, money, funds, cash, prop- erty; luxury, satiety. ANT. Poverty, scarcity, in- digence, lack, want, need, impe- cuniosity. Wear. Carry, bear, have on ; use up; impair, waste, diminish, consume; last; don, exhibit, sport. ANT. Doff, abandon; renew, renovate, repair; increase, aug- ment, swell. Weariness. Fatigue, languor, exhaustion, lassitude, prostra- tion, depression. ANT. Strength, vigor, force, energy, restedness. Wearisome. Tiresome, tedious, irksome, vexatious, fatiguing; trying, wearing; prosy, monot- onous, annoying, uninterest- ing; toilsome, laborious. ANT. Easy, pleasing, com- fortable; invigorating; facile; interesting, exciting, fascinat- ing, delightful, amusing, stir- ring. Weary, a. Fatigued, tiresome, irksome, wearisome ; tired, sick, exhausted. ANT. Energetic, strong, re- freshed, invigorated : pleased, interested. Weave. Interlace, unite; com- pose, fabricate; intwine, plait, braid, plat. ANT. Disentangle, unravel, untwist, disunite, untwine; ex- tricate, simplify. Wed. Marry, espouse; unite, at- tach. I 284 ] wed] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [who ' ANT. Separate, divorce. Wedding. Marriage, bridal, es- pousals, nuptials, nuptial cere- mony. ANT. Celibacy, bachelorhood, virginity. Wedlock. Marriage, matrimony, nuptial state. ANT. Celibacy, bachelorhood, virginity. Weep. Cry, shed tears, lament, complain ; drip, be soaked ; sob, bewail, bemoan; droop. ANT. Laugh, smile; rejoice, be cheerful, enjoy. Weight. Heaviness ; pressure, burden; importance, influence, consequence, moment ; ponder- ousness, gravity, load, power; efficacy, impressiveness. ANT. Lightness, levity, vola- tility; insignificance, triviality, weakness, inefjlcacy, worthless- ness ;portableness, ease, facility. Weighty. Heavy, ponderous, burdensome, onerous; forcible, momentous ; efficacious, impres- sive, cogent. ANT. Easy, light, unencum- bered; active, swift ; slight, un- important; frivolous, volatile, unsettled, giddy. Welcome, n. Greeting, saluta- tion, reception. ANT. Farewell, adieu, part- ing, good-by, leave-taking; re- pulse, repudiation. Welcome, a. Grateful, pleasing, gladly entertained, acceptable, agreeable, gratifying; gratui- tous, free. ANT. Unwelcome, unpleas- ant, disagreeable, unacceptable. Welfare. Prosperity, happiness, well-being, enjoyment, success, weal, advantage, benefit, profit, luck, thrift. ANT. Adversity, misfortune, reverses, failure, ill luck, un- happiness. Well, a. Good, desirable, fortu- nate, advantageous; healthy; favored, lucky; hale, sound. ANT. Ill, sickly, diseased, unwell, poorly; unlucky, unfor- tunate. Well, adv. Justly, rightly, abun- dantly, fully, adequately, thor- oughly, satisfactorily, advanta- geously, conveniently, properly. ANT. Ill, wrongly, poorly, imperfectly, improperly, badly Wet. Damp, moist, rainy, hu- mid; nasty; dank; showery; lively, interesting. ANT. Dry, parched, thirsty, arid; plain, unvarnished; shrewd, sharp, quaint. Wheedle. Cajole, flatter, entice, coax, inveigle, fawn upon. ANT. Deter, undeceive, de- tract, decry; chide, scold, re- buke, blame. Whereas. Since, considering; when in fact, while, although; seeing that; inasmuch as. Whimsical. Capricious, fanciful, queer, strange, freakish, quaint, fantastic. ANT. Staid, serious, softer, matter-of-fact, steady, sedate. White. Snowy, pale, pallid; un- blemished, innocent, pure ; gray, hoary; fortunate, happy, favor- able. ANT. Black, dark, colorless, negro, sooty, coallike; dismal, gloomy, forbidding, threaten- ing, sullen, foreboding; impure, sullied. Whole. All, total, complete, en- tire, undivided, uninjured, un- broken ; unimpaired, integral ; sound, perfect, faultless, strong, well, healthy. ANT. Partial, imperfect, un- sound, ill, sick; divided, frac- tional. Wholesome. Salubrious, salu- tary, healthy, healthful, nour- [ 285 ] who] [win ishing, nutritious, strengthen- ing, invigorating; beneficial, good; fresh, sound, uncorrupt. ANT. Detrimental, deleteri- ous, prejudicial, hurtful, perni- cious, noxious. Wholly. Entirely, completely, perfectly, totally, fully, alto- gether, utterly. ANT. Partially, imperfectly, incompletely, separately, in part. Wicked. Sinful, criminal, guilty, immoral, ungodly, profane, un- righteous, atrocious, unholy, vi- cious, nefarious, heinous, aban- doned, iniquitous, depraved, unprincipled, irreverent, vile, abandoned, bad, evil, unjust, ill, outrageous, monstrous, vil- lainous. ANT. Good, righteous, just, godly, virtuous, fair, honorable, unsullied, pious, benevolent, up- right, reputable, true, excellent. Wickedness. Crime, sin, vice, iniquity, evil, depravity, im- morality, enormity; badness, vileness, corruption. ANT. Goodness, piety, godli- ness, righteousness, honor, vir- tue, benevolence. Wide. Broad, spacious, vast, ex- tensive, comprehensive, liberal; remote, distant, far; ample, ex- panded. ANT. Narrow, contracted, confined, cramped, constricted, limited; bigoted, parsimonious; close, near. Wife. Married woman, consort, spouse, helpmate. ANT. Sweetheart, maiden; widow. Wild, a. Untamed, uncultivated, undomesticated ; savage, unciv- ilized, rude, ferocious; violent, turbulent; disorderly, crazy, ungoverned; visionary; unshel- tered, exposed. ANT. Tame, domesticated, cultivated, civilized; populated, frequented; polite, gentle, re~ fined; rational, orderly, sane, controlled, sober, collected. Wile. Trick, snare, artifice, be- guilement, allurement, strata- gem, cheat, fraud, imposture, deceit, deception, contrivance, device. ANT. Artlessness, openness, candor, straightforwardness. Wilful. Self-determined, volun- tary; obstinate, perverse, stub- born, refractory ; self-willed, headstrong; wayward; inten- tional, prepense, preconceived, premeditated, designed, delib- erate, purposed. ANT. Concessive, compliant, amenable, obedient, docile, man- ageable; adventitious, acciden- tal. Will, n. Choice, determination, preference, volition; decree, de- sire, command, purpose ; con- trol, disposal ; testament ; reso- lution, decision, self-reliance, force ; inclination, pleasure, dis- position; behest, order, direc- tion. ANT. Indecision, vacillation, indeterminateness, indifference; sensibility, perception. Will, v. Bequeath, devise, direct; choose, decide, determine, de- cree; wish, desire, incline to have; be willing. ANT. Die intestate; be indif- ferent. Willing. Inclined, consenting, ready, complying; chosen, de- sired; disposed, minded, desir- ous; voluntary. ANT. Loath, disinclined, re- luctant, averse, backward. Win. Gain, get, procure, earn; be victorious, prevail; obtain; acquire, achieve; conquer; suc- ceed, accomplish. [ 286 ] win] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [wit ANT. Lose, fail of, miss, for- feit, be deprived or bereaved of. Wind, v. Coil, twine, wreathe, twist, turn ; enfold, encircle ; di- rect; insinuate. ANT. Straighten, unravel, untwist. Winding. Twisting, circuitous, bending, curving, meandering, flexuous, serpentine, sinuous. ANT. Straight, rectilinear, direct, undeviating, unswerving. Winning. Charming, attractive, alluring, pleasing, bewitching, winsome, fascinating, delight- ful, lovely, captivating, prepos- sessing, enchanting. ANT. Repulsive, unpleasing, repellent, disagreeable, offen- sive, repugnant, revolting, dis- gusting, odious. Wisdom. Judgment, prudence, reason, understanding, sense, skill, sagacity, attainment, dis- cernment, depth, discretion, in- formation, foresight, learning, profundity, reasonableness, pre- science, knowledge, insight, ju- diciousness, erudition, enlight- enment. ANT. Folly, imbecility, stu- pidity, error, foolishness, fatu- ity, idiocy, absurdity, impru- dence, indiscretion, miscalcula- tion, nonsense, mis judgment, silliness, senselessness. Wise. Knowing, erudite, wary, learned, sagacious; crafty; ju- dicious, discreet; skilled, in- telligent, rational ; sage, sensi- ble ; logical ; deep, discerning, profound, philosophical. ANT. Senseless, idiotic, ir- rational; nonsensical, impru- dent, irrational, indiscreet, ri- diculous, preposterous, insen- sate. Wish, v. Long for, hanker after, desire; invoke, imprecate. ANT. Despise, dislike; dia- relish, be averse to, displease. Wit. Ingenuity, humor, satire, sarcasm, irony, burlesque; in- tellect, mind, understanding, sense; man of genius or humor; penetration, discernment, in- sight, acumen ; facetiousness, drollery, waggery, jocularity, sparkle, repartee, joke, playful- ness, fun, witticism, pleasantry, banter, jest, raillery. ANT. Stupidity, inanity, ob- tuseness, vapidity, dulness, commonplace, matter-of-fact; irrationality, platitude; dolt, dullard; sobriety, solemnity, se- riousness, gravity, stolidity. Witchcraft. Sorcery, enchant- ment, magic, necromancy, con- juration, incantation, charm, spell, thaumaturgy. Witchery. Sorcery, witchcraft; fascination, enchantment, spell, entrancement, ravishment. ANT. Reality, actuality, dis- illusionment, bald facts. With. By, on the side of, by the help of; attending, accompany- ing, close ; against ; according to ; in contrast with ; upon, im- mediately after. Withdraw. Take back, recall, retire; draw back, remove; re- cede, depart. ANT. Offer, afford; produce; repeat, reiterate, confirm; re~ nor,- furnish, propose, give. Withhold. Hold back, restrain, impede, hamper; retain, refuse; suppress, check, rein in, inhibit, stint, forbear; detain. ANT. Let go, give, bestow, confer; admit, yield; furnish, allow, provide, permit; encour- age, embolden, cheer, hearten, animate. Within, a. Inside, inwardly, in- ternally, indoors, in the limits of. [ 287 ] wit] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [wor ANT. Without, outside, out- wardly, externally, outdoors. Without, prep. Out of, beyond, out of the limits of, in the ab- sence of, in separation from; independently of; exclusive of, omitting. ANT. Within, inside of, in the limits of, including, embrac- ing. "Without, con;'. Unless, except. Withstand. Oppose, resist, con- front, thwart, combat, prevent, contradict. ANT. Concede, grant, assist, submit, acquiesce, abet, coun- tenance, encourage, support. Witness, n. Attestation, testi- mony, evidence, proof; one who attests or is directly cognizant of; eye-witness; deponent, cor- roborator ; spectator, auditor, voucher. ANT. Belief, hearsay, rumor, report ; invalidation, refutation. Witty. Acute, sharp, smart, fa- cetious, arch, keen, amusing, humorous, satirical, taunting, ironical. ANT. Dull, stupid, obtuse, dry, prosaic, prosy, tiresome, te- dious, serious. Woe. Grief, sorrow, misery, ca- lamity; curse, malediction; dis- consolateness, tribulation, mel- ancholy, agony, depression, un- happiness. ANT. Joy, delight, pleasure, prosperity, enjoyment, bliss, fe- licity, welfare, cheerfulness, merriment. Woful. Sorrowful, distressed, wretched, afflicted, unhappy, sad; paltry, poor, piteous, dis- consolate, miserable, burdened, troubled. ANT. Joyous, light-hearted, cheerful, merry, rejoiced, glad, delighted, gay, blessed. Womanhood. Muliebrity, ma- turity in woman, feminality; womanliness ; woman, woman- kind. ANT. Manhood, manliness, masculinity; man, mankind. Womanish. Effeminate, weak, foolishly feminine. ANT. Mannish, aping a man, foolishly masculine. Womanly. Becoming a woman, feminine, delicate, refined. ANT. Manly, strong, virile, becoming a man. Wonder, n. Astonishment, ad- miration, amazement, surprise, awe, bewilderment, curiosity; portent, miracle, prodigy, mar- vel; phenomenon, sight, rarity, spectacle. ANT. Expectation, anticipa- tion; familiarity, apathy, in- difference; foreknowledge, pre- science; ennui; satiety; plati- tude, truism, commonplace. Wonderful. Amazing, astonish' ing, marvelous, surprising, im- probable, strange, incredulous; startling, awesome, portentous, extraordinary, prodigious, won- drous. ANT. Commonplace, famil- iar, expected, ordinary, wonted, hackneyed, customary, habitual. Wonted. Accustomed, usual, ha- bitual, customary, habituated, used, conventional, regular, fre- quent, common. ANT. Exceptional, unusual, unused, unconventional, infre- quent, irregular. Wood. Forest, grove, thicket; timber, trees; copse, woodland, forestland. ANT. Open, prairie, clear- ing. Word. Term, expression, ac- cents, tongue, vocable ; account, tidinga, message ; statement, declaration, affirmation, prom- ise; (pi.) contention, dispute, 288 ] wor] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [wor wrangling, altercation; speech, talk, discourse, language. ANT. Idea, conception, sug- gestion; sentence, unit of com- position, paragraph. Work, n. Exertion, activity, ef- fort, toil, employment, labor; business, duty; product, fabric, production, performance, man- ufacture; act, deed, service, re- sult, effect, achievement, feat; composition, structure ; man- agement, treatment, operation, issue, fruit; occupation; ac-' tion. drudgery. ANT. Frustration, abortion, hodge-podge; failure, deficiency, defect, fault; miscarriage; rest, inertia, fruitlessness, inopera- tiveness; inefficiency, futility; repose, relaxation, ease, vaca- tion, idleness, leisure, recrea- tion. Work, v. Exert one's self, labor, be engaged, toil; operate, act, perform; effect, affect, conduce, influence; strain; use, utilize; produce, accomplish ; prevail upon, manage, lead; ferment. ANT. Rest, recreate, stop, re- pose, halt, relax, be at ease, lie, recline, sleep, slumber; fail, miscarry, be wanting, lapse. Workman. Worker, artificer, la- borer, artisan, mechanic, opera- tive, craftsman; toiler, hand; master. ANT. Employer, superinten- dent, inspector, supervisor, di- rector, overseer. Workmanship. Handicraft, ex- ecution, skill, art, manipula- tion, handiwork. ANT. Bungling, botching. World. Earth, universe, crea- tion; affairs, interests, life, ac- tion, occupation ; inhabitants, people, mankind ; globe, cosmos, planet, nature; public, society, human race. ANT. Heaven; atom, indi- vidual. Worldly. Human, common ; sec- ular, temporal; mundane, ter- restrial, earthly; fleshly, car- nal; universal; sublunary; sor- did, selfish, ambitious, earth- born, groveling. ANT. Spiritual, ethereal, ce- lestial, heavenly, lunar, solar; incorporeal, ghostly; ideal, ab- stract, mental, intellectual; sa- cred, holy, pure. Worry, n. Care, anxiety, fret, solicitude, torment, vexation, trouble, annoyance, plague, dis- quiet ; perplexity, concern, fear, apprehension, uneasiness, mis- giving. ANT. Trust, calm, courage, serenity, tranquillity, placidr ity, quiet, ease of mind, reso- lution, dauntlessness. Worship, n. Reverence, hom- age, adoration, submission, ob- sequiousness, honor, abject- ness. ANT. Detestation, hatred, abhorrence, loathing, disgust, antipathy, assertion, defiance, challenge. Worship, v. Adore, reverence, revere, idolize, respect, defer, venerate, deify, honor, exalt. ANT. Defy, dare; abhor, de~ test, hate, disdain, abominate, contemn, loathe. Worth. Desert, merit, excel- lence; price, rate; value, qual- ity, equivalence ; virtue, char- acter, worthiness, integrity; credit, cost, estimate. ANT. Demerit, worthless- i*ess, cheapness, uselessness, fu- tility, poverty. Worthless. Undeserving, use- less, valueless, vile, mean, mis- erable, poor, wretched, abject, unworthy, ignoble, abandoned, depraved; refuse, waste. [ 289 ] worj SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [wry Airr. Costly, valuable, dear, high-priced, expensive; sump- tuous, splendid, rich, precious ; useful, excellent, estimable, vir- tuous, worthy. Worthy. Valuable, deserving, estimable, virtuous; suitable, adapted, meritorious, exem- plary, upright, righteous, hon- est, honorable. ANT. Worthless, valueless, ignoble, defective, unsuitable, Wound, v. Hurt, injure, dam- age, harm, cut, stab, rend, lac- erate, pain; annoy, mortify, offend. ANT. Heal, allay, cure, rem- edy, soothe, repair; appease, assuage, comfort, harmo- nize. Wrap, v. Wind, fold, cover, en- velop, enfold, involve, conceal, hide, muffle. ANT. Unwind, unfold, lay bare, reveal, develop, expose. Wrath. Fury, ire, resentment, passion, anger, rage, exasper- ation, indignation, choler, irri- tation. ANT. Calmness, control, re- straint, composure, placidity, serenity. Wrathful. Furious, raging, in- dignant, passionate, choleric, ireful, angry, exasperated, in- censed, irate, wroth, mad, pro- voked, resentful. ANT. Calm, collected, con- trolled, repressed, masterly, re- strained, good-tempered. Wreath. Garland, chaplet, fes- toon, crown, bays, diadem. Wreck, n. Ruins, remains, rub- bish, wreckage, debris; havoc, destruction, shipwreck, ruin, desolation, perdition, demoli tion. ANT. Preservation, conser- vation, saving, protection, *. curity, Wrench, v. Pull, twist, wrest, force, strain, sprain; pervert, distort, wring. ANT. Straighten, untwist; rectify. Wretched. Miserable, calami- tous, afflicted, unhappy, de- graded, woful; worthless, pal- try; forlorn, wobegone, com- fortless, distressed ; shocking, deplorable, depressing, sad; contemptible, mean, pitiful, de- based, humiliated. ANT. Prosperous, flourish- ing, fortunate, happy, enviable, felicitous, successful, thriving; valuable; honored, noble, ex- alted. Wrong, a. Injurious, unjust, faulty, detrimental, unfit; im- proper, incorrect; mistaken, er- roneous; illegal, immoral. ANT. Right, upright, law- ful, equitable, fair, just, be- coming, proper, suitable, ap- propriate, fit; correct, true, ac- tual, real. Wrought. Worked, elaborated; performed, done, effected, exe- cuted, produced, manufactured. ANT. Rough, crude, coarse, raw, unpolished. Wry. Twisted, distorted; mis- directed, perverted, wrested ; askew, contorted, deformed, de- ranged; crooked, awry. ANT. Straight, rectilinear, direct, upright, erect; perpen- dicular, shapely, comely, sym- metrical, proper, well-formed. T 290 ] yaw] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [zea Yawn. Open wide, gape ; desire, be eager. ANT. Close, shut, engulf. Yearly. Annual, happening each year, per annum, every year, year by year. ANT. Perennial, everlast- ing, evergreen. Yearn. Long, desire, be eager, covet, crave, hanker. ANT. Loathe, revolt, recoil, shudder at, despise. Yell, v. Cry out, shriek, scream, holler. ANT. Keep silence, subdue, silence. Yet. Besides, nevertheless, not- withstanding, however, still, eventually, ultimately, at last, BO far, thus far, hitherto, at present; over and above; fur- ther; now. Yield. Furnish, produce, afford, bear, render; relinquish, give in, let go, forego; accede, ac- quiesce; resign, surrender, con- cede, allow, grant, submit, suc- cumb; comply, consent, agree. ANT. Withdraw, withhold, retain, deny, refuse, vindicate, assert, claim, disallow, appro- priate, resist, dissent, protest, struggle, strive. Yielding. Conceding, produc- ing, surrendering, supple, pli- ant, submissive, unresisting, obsequious, attentive, flexible, compliant, accommodating. ANT. Defiant, resisting, ob- stinate, firm, stiff, hard, per- verse. Yoke, n. Bond, chain, link, tie; servitude, bondage, vassalage, service, thraldom, subjection, subservience. ANT. Freedom, liberty; au- thority, command. Yoke, v. Couple, conjoin, con- nect, link; enslave, subjugate. ANT. Dissever, divorce, dis- connect, liberate, release, man- umit, enfranchise. Young. Juvenile, immature ; in- experienced, innocent, igno- rant; youthful, boyish, girlish, childlike. ANT. Old, mature, adult; experienced, knowing; senile, aged, decrepit, venerable; an- . tique, antiquated, obsolete; su- perannuated. Youth. Adolescence, childhood, infancy ; youthf ulness, juve- nility; minority; lad, boy, girl, youngster. ANT. Age, senility, maturity. Youthful. Puerile, juvenile, im- mature, young, fresh, vigorous, unripe, callow, childish, boyish, childlike, girlish, adolescent. ANT. Mature, adult, full- grown, ripe, ripened. Zeal. Ardor, eagerness, earnest- ness, fervor, enthusiasm, en- ergy, feeling, devotion, inten- sity, passion, spirit. ANT. Apathy, indifference, coldness, carelessness, sluggish- ness, torpor. Zealot. Partisan, bigot, enthusi- ast, fanatic, devotee, visionary, dreamer. ANT. Renegade, traitor, de- serter; lukewarm person. Zealous. Ardent, anxious, ear- nest, enthusiastic, fervid, eager, [ 291 ] sen] SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS [zon steadfast, keen, fervent, de- voted, prompt, ready, fiery, pas- sionate. ANT. Lukewarm, indiffer* ent, cold, apathetic, passion- less, phlegmatic. Zenith. Height, pinnacle, acme, summit, culmination, maxi- mum, apex, top. ANT. Nadir, lowest point, depth, minimum. Eephyr. West wind, breeze, gentle wind. ANT. Gate, furious wind. Zero. Naught, cipher, nothing. ANT. Something, existence, creation; infinity. Zest. Flavor, appetizer, pleasure, gusto, gust, enjoyment, relish, sharpener, enhancement, savor, taste, smack, sauce, appetite. ANT. Distaste, disrelish, detriment. Zone. Girdle, belt, girth, cinc- ture, band, baldric; region, climate, clime; circuit, circum- ference; zodiac; orbit. ANT. Sphere, universe. 12*2 J University of California SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY Return this material to the library from which it was borrowed.